Series MS-3378 - Colonial administration field photographs of Richard Maynard (Department of Indian Affairs tours of inspection)

Field photograph (stereograph) of an unidentified Indigenous individual on board the H.M.S Boxer ... Field photograph of an unidentified Indigenous individual on board the H.M.S Boxer attributed to ... Field photograph of an unidentified Indigenous individual on board the H.M.S Boxer attributed to ... Field photograph of an unidentified Indigenous individual (adult) taken at a land-based portrait ... Field photograph of an unidentified Indigenous individual (adult) taken at a land-based portrait ... Field photograph of an unidentified Indigenous individual (adult) taken at a land-based portrait ... Field photograph (stereograph) of a group of nine unidentified Indigenous individuals (adults) on... Field photograph (stereograph) of a group of four unidentified Indigenous individuals (adults) on... Field photograph (stereograph) of a group of seven unidentified Indigenous individuals (youth and... Field photograph (stereograph) of a group of fourteen unidentified Indigenous individuals (youth ... Field photograph (stereograph) of a large group portrait (infants, children, youth and adults) of... Field photograph (stereograph) of a small group portrait (adults) of Indigenous and non-Indigenou... Field photograph (stereograph) of a view from the river bank in front of a community village site... Field photograph of a group of twenty-one Indigenous individuals (youth, adults) and five H.M.S. ... Field photograph of view of a community village scene, with eight or nine Indigenous individuals ... Field photograph of view of a community village site, H.M.S. Boxer sailor, building structure wit... Field photograph (stereograph) of a view of several buildings at a community village site on Vanc... Field photograph (stereograph) of a group of sailors seated on the rocky beachfront on Vancouver ... Field photograph (stereograph) of a group of sailors with a display of caught fish on the beachfr... Field photograph of a group of Indigenous individuals (youth, adults) and sailors (adults) with a... Field photograph (stereograph) depicting a side view of a community village site on Vancouver Isl... View two of a field photograph (stereograph) depicting a side view of a community village site on... View three of a field photograph (stereograph) depicting a close-up of a scene in front of a buil... View five of a field photograph (stereograph) depicting a group portrait of Indigenous (youth, ad... Field photograph depicting a detail of a community village site (featuring two carved human figur... Field photograph (stereograph) of a group photograph of five Indigenous individuals (adults) and ... Field photograph (stereograph) depicting a side view of a community village site (community build...

Title and statement of responsibility area

Title proper

Colonial administration field photographs of Richard Maynard (Department of Indian Affairs tours of inspection)

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  • graphic material

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Title notes

  • Source of title proper: Title based on the contents of the series.
  • Attributions and conjectures: This series is attributed to Richard Maynard.

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Series

Reference code

MS-3378

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Issuing jurisdiction and denomination (philatelic)

Dates of creation area

Date(s)

  • 1873-1874 (Creation)
    Creator
    Maynard, Richard

Physical description area

Physical description

34 photographs

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Archival description area

Name of creator

(1832-1907)

Biographical history

Richard Maynard (1832-1907) was a well-known British Columbia photographer, prospector, and business owner originally from Cornwall, England and based in Victoria, British Columbia.

Richard Maynard married Hannah Hatherly in England in 1852 and they immigrated to Bowmanville, Ontario. While there, he operated a boot and shoe business but left in the late 1850s to travel to the Fraser River on the west coast of the country to participate in the gold rush. Richard returned to Bowmanville and he and his wife Hannah moved with their young family to the Colony of Vancouver Island in 1862 on the Sierra Nevada. Upon the Maynard family’s arrival in Fort Victoria, Mr. R. Maynard continued his prospecting enterprises in the Stikine region on the mainland. Upon his return from the area, he joined his family and opened up a business in Victoria.

Primarily a field photographer, Richard was known for his field and landscape photography. It is unknown how or with whom he learnt photography. He made many trips in the Colony of Vancouver Island and the mainland. One of his earliest trips was an excursion to Barkerville in 1868 with his son Albert. At that time, early photographer Frederick Dally was among the other photographers in residence there. In 1873 and 1874, Richard travelled on the vessel the HMS Boxer touring Coast Salish and Interior Salish Indigenous communities as the photographer accompanying government officials including Israel Wood Powell on tours of inspection. The journey in 1873 consisted of travelling to the Northeast Coast of Vancouver Island and adjacent settlements on the mainland including Fort Rupert on Vancouver Island, and Bella Coola, Bella Bella and Cape Caution, and in 1874, he travelled to the West Coast of Vancouver Island which included Friendly Cove in Nootka Sound. In the late 1870s and early 1880s, photographers Oregon Columbus Hastings (1846-1912) and Edward Dossetter (1844 -?) made similar inspection tours with I.W. Powell in 1879 and 1881 respectively.

In the spring of 1884, Richard Maynard traveled to Haida Gwaii (then referred to as the Queen Charlotte Islands) as a photographer with the American explorer Captain Newton H. Chittenden. Engravings from his views were published in the Official Report of the Exploration of the Queen Charlotte Islands for the Government of British Columbia (Victoria, 1884).

Also during the 1880s, Richard Maynard documented the construction of the transcontinental railway in British Columbia and Alberta through multiple tours. In 1885, both Richard and Hannah Maynard appear to have photographed the Canadian Pacific Railway (C.P.R.) along its route through British Columbia. These trips crossed both Coast Salish and Interior Salish Indigenous territorial regions and produced images of both colonial and Indigenous settlements and communities at a time of intense change and oppression that significantly affected Indigenous lifeways, rights, resources and lands in British Columbia. Maynard C.P.R. related photographic "views" were available for order or purchase at the Maynard Studio and other commercial operations in Victoria and on the mainland during the 1880s.

In the late 1870s and 1880s, Richard also made several trips further up the continent to Alaska for photographic purposes in 1879, 1882, 1887, and in 1892 to the Pribilof Islands where he documented sealing and seal rookeries.

For his work, Richard Maynard received acknowledgements including those representing museum and photographic communities. In a public lecture in 1884, members of the Newcombe family acknowledged Richard Maynard's ethnographic work British Columbia and Alaska, and his documentary record of the Cariboo Road in the 1860s and 1870s. In 1890, Richard Maynard won first prize in the professional class for the Victoria landscape view, "The Arm" by West Shore magazine in October of 1890. During his lifetime, Richard Maynard’s photographic works appear to have been collected by a number of museum institutions in the United States.

During the course of his career, the personal history of Richard Maynard and his wife are closely linked, to both his photographic work and that of his wife’s photographic studio, Mrs. R. Maynard’s Photographic Gallery (1862? – 1912). Richard Maynard and Hannah Maynard took several working trips together where they both practiced landscape photography during the 1870s and 1880s. This included trips to Vancouver Island, Haida Gwaii and to Banff, Alberta. Richard Maynard's field photography and landscape views appear to be used by Hannah as source material for composite works, such as the piece “80 Views on the Frazer River” featuring multiple landscape views, and also in their “documentary” composite works of Indigenous subjects. Photographic work created by Richard and his wife Hannah have been attributed to each other in several ways and means over their photographic careers. Both Richard and Hannah Maynard have been given credit for the same photographic work, as in the case for the Victoria landscape view, "The Arm."

Richard Maynard retires in the late 1890s. In 1896, his son Albert Hatherly Maynard (1857-1934) became the general manager of his business, as well as taking over management of the photographic stock. Richard Maynard died at the age of 74 on January 10, 1907, in Victoria, British Columbia.

Custodial history

Found in BC Archives in 2008. Materials in this group of records appear to have been part of a large purchase of Maynard glass plate negatives by the Provincial Government and the Provincial Library and Archives from Albert H. Maynard in the early 1930s. Albert H. Maynard is the son of photographers Hannah and Richard Maynard of Mrs. R. Maynard’s Photographic Gallery.

Scope and content

This series consists of 34 field photographs representing a portion of views created during colonial government tours known as “visits of inspection” of Indigenous communities on Vancouver Island and mainland British Columbia in the early 1870s. The images were created by English photographer Richard Maynard during his accompaniment on and documentation of two colonial government tours of inspection of Indigenous communities conducted in 1873 and 1874. The photographs document elements of Indigenous life and lifeways relative to communities located around west and north coasts of Vancouver Island and the west coast of mainland British Columbia (during spring, summer and fall seasons), colonial government-to-Indigenous government relationships, as well as the perspectives of the colonial government administration regarding these communities in the early period after confederation. Amongst the earliest photographic works are those produced on the 1873 tour between May and June of 1873. The photographs were produced for the purposes of creating views of Indigenous lives and livihoods from different First Nations communities around Vancouver Island and parts of the interior of British Columbia to facilitate colonial government administration of Indigenous life and lifeways, and to expand the portfolio of commercial views available from Maynard photographers in the 1870s, and distribution of images of Indigenous life to public audiences. This series presents a portion of the ethnographic, landscape and tourist photography within the commercial portfolio of photographer Richard Maynard and Mrs. R. Maynard’s Photographic Gallery within the early segment of Richard Maynard’s career and the early commercial operations of the Maynard Studio.

In 1873 and 1874, Richard Maynard joined Superintendent of Indian Affairs, Israel Wood Powell (1836-1915) as the photographer on several colonial government tours that visited multiple First Nation communities within the regions of the Coast Salish, Nuu-chah-nulth, Kwakwaka’wakw, Heiltsuk and Nuxalk Nations around west and north coastal areas of Vancouver Island and parts of the west coast of British Columbia mainland. The government party travelled on the gunboat vessel of the Royal Navy the H.M.S. Boxer. The purpose of the Richard Maynard was described by I.W. Powell as “a Photographer who accompanied the Expedition for the purpose of taking views of Indian Camps and photographs of different Tribes etc…” and the activities of a typical inspection was described by Powell in one visitation near Friendly Cove, Nootka Sound, Vancouver Island (1874) as “photographing points of interest about [the] historic camp and inquiring into the general character and wants of its inhabitants.”

Among the First Nation communities visited along the tour of 1873, some were reported as:

• Kwakwaka'waka Nation community near Knight Inlet, a community/camp up the Sawatti river, British Columbia mainland (May 31, 1873) (See J-04533, J-04534 and J-04535).
Reported by I.W. Powell as “T'sawattie Knights Inlet.”

• Indigenous community in the Nuxalk nation region near Bella Coola close to Bentinck Arm, British Columbia mainland (June 6 or June 6-8th, 1873) (See J-04192, J-04171, J-04170)

• Indigenous community in the [Nuxalk nation] region near Bella Coola up the river, British Columbia mainland (June 6 or June 6-8th, 1873) (See J-04192, J-04171, J-04170)
Reported by I.W. Powell as previously identified as the “Village of the Rascals”

• Indigenous community near Takush Harbour, near Cape Caution, British Columbia mainland (June 9, 1873) (See J-04202, J-04204, J-04205, J-04206, J-04207 and J-04208).
Reported by I.W. Powell as meeting the "Qwoi-sil-lahs" at the "[Qwoi]-sil-lahs Camp" after proceeding to Cape Caution and Takush Harbour.

Among the First Nation communities visited along the tour of 1874, some were reported as:
• Nuu-chah-nulth nations of the southern region at Green Cove, Vancouver Island (September 7) (See J-04218, J-04219, J-04220, J-04221)
Reported in the media as the “Ohiet” [Huu-ay-aht] and “Owchucklisaht.”

• Nuu-chah-nulth nations of the central region near “Hecate passage north of Vargas Island” in Clayoquot Sound, Vancouver Island (September 8th 1874) (See J-04218, J-04219, J-04220, J-04221)
Reported in the media as the “Ahousahts” [Ahousaht] and the “Klahookwahts” [Tla—o-qui-aht].

• Nations in the area of the Nuu-chah-nulth (of the central region) near “Hecate passage north of Vargas Island” in Clayoquot Sound, Vancouver Island (September 9, 1874).
Reported in the media as 100 Indigenous people (“interviewed”) in 25 canoes.

• Indigenous community near Refuge Cove, British Columbia mainland (September 9, 1874) (See J-04222, J-04536)
Reported in the media as “where the Mahnohhahsahts live.”
Reported by Richard Maynard as “refuge Cove Indian name [Manhousesett].”

• Nuu-chah-nulth region and a community near Friendly Cove in the Nootka Sound on the west coast of Vancouver Island (September 10 and 11, 1874) (See J-04223, J-04224, J-04214 and J-04209)
Reported in the media as the “Movitchahts, known as the Nootkahs.
Reported by I.W. Powell as the Moo-cha-ahts.
Reported by I.W. Powell as meeting the “successor” of Chief “Maquinna.”

• Nuu-chah-nulth nations of the northern region at Queen’s Cove, Vancouver Island (September 11, 1874) (See J-04218, J-04219, J-04220, J-04221)
Reported in the media as the “Ehahtisaht” [Ehattesaht] and the “Noochatlaht” [Nuchatlaht].

• “Shushartie Bay,” Vancouver Island (September 13, 1874) (See J-04218, J-04219, J-04220, J-04221)
Reported in the media as the “Nawitee.”

• Kwakwaka'wakw nation region and community at Fort Rupert, Vancouver Island (September 14, 1874)

• Kwakwaka'wakw nation region and community at Alert Bay (Nimpkish River), Vancouver Island (September 14 and 15, 1874) (See J-04215, J-04200, J-04194, J-04195 and J-04217).

• Coast Salish community near Departure Bay on the Vancouver Island (September 16-17, 1874) (See J-04225)

Other photographers were also known to have accompanied colonial government officials on inspection tours before and after Richard Maynard’s tours between the period of the 1860s to the 1880s, often documenting the same Indigenous communities on Vancouver Island and mainland British Columbia over a twenty year period. This included Oregon Columbus Hastings with I.W. Powell on the H.M.S. Rocket in 1879, Edward Dossetter with I.W. Powell in 1881. Photographer Frederick Dally accompanied a tour on the H.M.S. Scout on an earlier voyage in1866, which appear to have created a record of many of the same communities visited by Richard Maynard in 1874. Earlier in 1860-1861, the Royal British Engineers photo documented pre-confederation Vancouver Island and mainland British Columbia as a part of surveying the Canada/U.S. boundry line.

The primary or adjunct purposes of these visits included law and order/policing, colonial government-to-Indigenous government relationships for a variety of purposes including observing communities for later negotiations on land ownership (e.g. reserves, fishing stations) and resource rights (e.g. fisheries and fishing rights) between colonial and Indigenous parties, as well as bestowing “staffs of authority.” In 1881, it also included artefact acquisition for collecting institutions such as the American Museum of Natural History in New York.

Published public accounts (along the route) were made of various tours in numerous colonial newspapers articles in publications such as The British Colonist and The Daily Standard, including for the tours of 1873 and 1874. On June 18, 1873, Richard Maynard is mentioned in The British Colonist in a description of an event leading to a commemorative group portrait between Indigenous and colonial government parties at a community near Knight Inlet (a "camp up the Sawatti river") as: “that able artist, R. Maynard.”

A selection of views taken by Richard Maynard were used in colonial government reports and communications after the inspections. Field photographs, consisting of ethnographic, landscape views and commemorative group photographs, were reported to have been included a list of 19 images (no.1 to no. 19) in a report submitted by Superintendent I.W. Powell entitled “British Columbia. Photographic Views taken during the Visitation of the Indian Commissioner [?] Indian tribes of East Coast of Vancouver Isld [sic] & on N W Coast of Mainland in Her Majesty’s Gun Vessel “Boxer” May & June 1873” in 1873. Richard Maynard and his general photographic purpose is mentioned as “a photographer who accompanied the Expedition for the purpose of taking views of Indian Camps, and photographs of different Tribes..”

Many of the works produced during these tours became part of the Maynard commercial portfolio and were promoted, reproduced, repurposed, distributed and otherwise used in a number of ways. Between the 1880 and 1890s, some of these field photographs were used in multi-image montage works that showcased a selection of the Maynard photographic portfolio of “Stereoscopic and Large Views of British Columbia and Vancouver Island for Sale” marketed by both Hannah and Richard Maynard. One montage work features a group photograph (J-04191) of Indigenous youth and adults taken at his land-based studio at a community near Takush Harbour and near Cape Caution on the British Columbia mainland during the tour of 1873, alongside photographs of churches, colonial buildings, railway engines on route, steamers and rivers and other views showcasing the Maynard representation of British Columbia and the Maynard photographic portfolio. Some photographs from these tours were later used as sources for visual accompaniments in local interest (Victoria, British Columbia) publications such as Victoria Illustrated. In one example, the Victoria Illustrated published in 1892 featured the illustration of a young Indigenous girl, a sketch created from one of Richard Maynard’s land-based studio portraits to complement the advertising of products of “Indian curios” at the business of John J. Hart of 43 Johnston Street. This version was published by Victoria Publishing Company.

As in the 1860s and 1870s, the Maynard’s continued production of popular imagery of Indigenous communities, people and lifeways for public consumption and collecting. Images, cropped or otherwise altered and manipulated from Richard’s photographic portfolio of the H.M.S. Boxer 1873 tour were produced and sold as cartes-de-visite, Negatives of land-based studio portraits of Indigenous sitters at a community near Takush Harbour and near Cape Caution on the British Columbia mainland again were edited and removed from their original context to market these cartes de visite, sometimes as composite images. In later years of the careers of the Maynard photographers, and as the Maynard Studio’s Indigenous photographic repertoire grew, Indigenous sitters from the land-based studio setting in 1873 were used to create fabricated images of Indigenous people and lifeways by removing the original field background and combining it with a different field background from another community or geolocation documented on other Maynard photographic tours around British Columbia and Alaska. These were marketed and sold as commercial cartes-de-visite. Near the end of the Maynard’s career and life, Hannah Maynard in early 1900s supplied and distributed some images produced on these H.M.S. Boxer tours along with other images from their portfolio of “Indigenous peoples of B.C.'s Northwest Coast” to the Peabody Museum of Archaeology and Ethnology at Harvard in the United States. These images included the popular portraits taken a community near Takush Harbour and near Cape Caution on the British Columbia mainland described as “3-Cape Caution Indians,” along with community village scenes described as “33-Bella Coola” and commemorative group photographs described as “17 -500 Indians at Knights Inlet.”

This series consists of 34 collodion and gelatin dry glass plate negatives in 3.25x 4.5, 4.5 x 7.25, 5x5, 5x7, 5x7.5, 5x8 and 8x10 inch sized glass plates. Many photographs are stereographs, as well as small and large negatives.

Photographic images consist of:

• Documentary group portraits of Indigenous and colonial government representatives on board the H.M.S. Boxer or at specific destinations visited;
• Ethnographic individual and group portraits at First Nation communities;
• Views of scenes or sites at Indigenous settlements, villages or other natural resource gathering destinations;
• Landscape views of destinations around Vancouver Island and the B.C. mainland;
• Documentation of the H.M.S Boxer anchored at locations on the tours.

Photographs consist of both unmanipulated negatives and manipulated negatives. Of the several manipulated negatives, the editing or reducing the view of items of material cultural (e.g. sections of carved and painted poles at settlement/village sites, see J-04534), landscape (e.g. manipulation or removal of sky, mountain or forest landscape at settlement/village sites, J-04534) or editing of other information (e.g. scratched emulsion in the regions depicting the faces of people in the image, see J-04216) is visible.

In some instances, negatives contain photograph numbers scratched on the surface of the plates. Some have multiple numbers inscribed. In some instances, one and two-digit numbers are presumed to be the photographer's original negative numbers, while other numbers (e.g. one, two or three digit numbers) are suspected to be those assigned to images during the course of facilitating their distribution, use, reproduction or publication. For an example see J-04222, which has the number “7” etched into the plate, J-04213 containing "189," or J-04170 that has “14” etched into the surface of the plate. For photographs that contain typed captions located within the photographic image, see J-04180, which contains a caption with the following information: "Photo of Maynard's Boat Crew At Barclay Sound, V.I." Finally, there are labels (on paper or simply on adhesive tape) containing numbers or descriptive information frequently found adhered to plates. There appears to be multiple authors of these labels, some attributed to the [Provincial Library] and some attributed to an unknown creator.

Individuals documented in the photographs in this series include the officers and crew of the H.M.S. Boxer, Department of Indians Affairs Superintendent Israel Wood Powell (in 1873, 1874), along with other officials such as George Blenkinsop (in 1873), Magistrate A.F. Pemberton (1873), and Hamilton Moffatt (1873) . Indigenous government representatives including “Chief Wawkash” of Dzawadi/Tsawatti/Tsawadi/Knight Inlet (1873) and “Chief [Mantzie]” or “[Ilothkin]” near Cape Caution (1873) and described by Powell as the successor to “Chief Maquinna” near Friendly Cove in the Nootka Sound (1874) described by Richard Maynard. These individuals are depicted primarily in group portraits.

There are photographs taken of representatives from First Nations communities (individuals and groups) on board the H.M.S. Boxer during both the 1873 and 1874 tours. This may include: a) the peoples at the Nuu-chah-nulth nations of the southern region at Green Cove (September 7, 1874) reported in the media as the “Ohiet” [Huu-ay-aht] and “Owchucklisaht”; b) the peoples at the Nuu-chah-nulth nations of the central region near “Hecate passage north of Vargas Island” in Clayoquot Sound (September 8th 1874) reported in the media as the “Ahousahts” [Ahousaht] and the “Klahookwahts” [Tla—o-qui-aht] ; the peoples at the Nuu-chah-nulth nations of the northern region at Queen’s Cove (September 11, 1874) reported in the media as the “Ehahtisaht” [Ehattesaht] and the “Noochatlaht” [Nuchatlaht]; and/or d)the peoples in the region of “Shushartie Bay”(September 13, 1874) reported in the media as the “Nawitee” (see J-04218, J-04219, J-04220, J-04221). It also may include Indigenous government representatives including “Chief Wawkash” of Dzawadi/Tsawatti/Tsawadi/Knight Inlet (1873) (see J-04201 and J-04213, a stereograph) and “prisoner”(J-04203) near Dzawadi/Knight Inlet.

Of the photographs taken on board the H.M.S. Boxer or when visiting a First Nations community site, there are several that represent commemorative individual and group photographs depicting government-to-government relationships (Indigenous-colonial). Several images illustrate the presence and use of staffs/presentation staffs or a “staff of authority,” a symbol of the colonial government given to Indigenous leaders and representatives beginning with Governor Seymour in the 1860s. In the 1860s, Governor Seymour is reported by The British Columbian to have spoken on the significance and purpose of staffs: “The Queen has sent out handsome staffs for the best chiefs. I will distribute them during the course of the year to those who may render good service to the Government.” For examples, see J-04213, J-04170 and the related group portrait HP015892/G-05015.

Indigenous settlements or village sites are documented the spring, summer and fall seasons and depict Indigenous land and resource use in the period of 1873 and 1874. These may reflect Indigenous land and resource “reserves” created during the period prior to the early 1870s. Demographics, including presence of women, children and elder adults are depicted here. Visual information within these field photographs reflects the cultural heritage, including the traditional, cultural and ecological knowledge and information, of a number of First Nations in British Columbia. Information regarding traditional activities and lifeways include fishing and food harvesting practices, settlement or village site location and building architecture, social demographics, governance, amoung other cultural practices. There is also information relating to the designs, images, crafts and artistic styles present in objects representing transportation (canoes), technology (fishing weirs, fish traps), settlement or site features (community buildings, carved poles), dress (clothing, headwear, regalia, adornments), and objects for food harvesting and collection (baskets and basketry), and other material culture (woven mats).

There are also landscape views containing ecological information depicted at certain locations within the above mentioned sites around Vancouver Island and the mainland of British Columbia documented during the early 1870s.

Notes area

Physical condition

Some of the photographs in this series are damaged. There are negatives with cracking or scratched emulsion. In some cases, visual information has been intentionally removed. As a result, some of the visual information is obscured in a number of the negatives in this series.

Immediate source of acquisition

Arrangement

Prior to 2019, items in this series appear to have been previously arranged while held in custody by the Provincial Library and Archives. In 2019, this series is arranged according to the imposed order found in Provincial Library and Archives containers.

Language of material

Script of material

Location of originals

Availability of other formats

Modern copy prints are available for selected materials from this series. For examples, see available modern copy prints for J-04123, J-04201, HP016444 (re: J-04203), HP094551 (Re: J: 04192), F-08845 (Re: J: 04171), J-04202, HP034128/HP016576 (re:J-04204), J-04205, J-04206, J-04207, HP093312/F-05173 (re:J-04208), HP094546 (re: J-04191), HP007954, J-04223, J-04215, HP094555 (re: J-04200), HP094554 (re: J-04194), J-04225, housed in the BC Archives Photograph Collection. Please contact the BC Archives to determine the access status of these reference materials.

Restrictions on access

Photographs in this series are glass plate negatives. Researchers should consult the online reference image prior to consulting the original. Please contact the BC Archives for details.

Terms governing use, reproduction, and publication

Items are in the public domain.

This series contains materials that depict the cultural heritage, knowledge and information of a number of First Nations in British Columbia. This may include some or all of the following: intellectual property (designs, images, crafts and artistic styles), heritage sites, traditional activities and lifeways and material culture. Within this, some photographs may contain culturally sensitive information. Culturally sensitive information within still images (photographs) can include burials, archaeological objects, religious or sacred objects, cemeteries and sacred places.

Please contact the BC Archives to determine the use, reproduction, and publication status of these records.

Finding aids

Associated materials

Associated Materials
Newspaper articles in The British Colonist relating to Richard Maynard’s tours with Department of Indian Affairs Superintendent Israel Wood Powell in 1873 and 1874 are held by the Victoria Times-Colonist. Digital access is available through the website “The British Colonist Online Edition: 1858-1980.” For an example, see the June 18, 1873 article “Return of the H.M.S. Boxer from the North with the Superintendent of Indian Affairs” and the article “The Cruise of the Boxer” in the Saturday morning issue of September 19, 1874. These articles contain detailed accounts including information of tour destinations, passengers aboard the H.M.S Boxer, interactions between Indigenous and colonial government officials (including visits, occurrences of interviews, events attended or actions carried out ), contextual anecdotes and observations regarding: the route, Indigenous communities, military activity in the tour areas, colonial settlement history or activity (including Hudson’s Bay Company posts), names of missionary presences, Indigenous community-to-Indigenous community relations, Indigenous settlements (including locations of summer and winter village sites), environmental and ecological information (fishing, salmon runs), names of Indigenous cultural groups and some place names for sites. Note: The author of the article is not stated.

Newspaper articles in The British Columbian can be accessed through The University of British Columbia’s Open Collections online. See the article “The Queen’s Birthday” dated Friday, May 26, 1865 or “The Late Celebration” dated Thursday, June 1, 1865 for information related to the colonial government’s use of presented staffs in colonial-Indigenous government relations. These articles report on the use of “staffs” by Governor Seymour during the 1860s.

The Royal British Columbia Museum’s Indigenous Collections and Repatriation department holds photographic prints and research documentation regarding Richard Maynard’s field photographs featured in this series.

Indigenous audio-visual photographic collections (formerly in the Department of Anthropology), part of the Royal British Columbia Museum Indigenous Collections and Repatriation department holds photographic prints (including card mounted prints, cartes de visite, stereograph card, greeting cards, as well as black and white recent prints) of some of these Maynard attributed works featured in this series. Some of these materials were transferred from the BC Archives.

Card mounted prints frequently contain photographer’s imprints, and in some cases they contain image descriptions or annotations. Types of information provided can include information about the photographer, the owner/collector of the photographic print (see PN 2210) and less frequently, about the sitter/subject of the portrait, geolocation of the community (PN4708) and citations of reproductions in published ethnographic works (see PN 2709).

For examples of field photograph or composite works (fabricated images featuring the portraits from Richard’s land-based studio and field photographs) in carte de visite and stereocard formats, see the following images identified as: PN5572-A and PN2789 (composite works), PN02094, PN02210, PN02213, PN02214 (land-based portraits from H.M.S. Boxer trip of 1873 in carte de visite format), PN04716 (1873 H.M.S. Boxer trip field photographs as a card mounted greeting card). For other examples of print photographs in carte de visite, stereocard and other card mounted formats from the tours of 1873 and 1874, see item level records in this series.

Indigenous audio-visual photographic collections also include several unprocessed photographic albums that contain alternative print versions of some of the Maynard views from this series and feature image captions as well as alpha-numeric codes from Newcombe registers. See albums identified as ‘Album 2’ also known as ‘Album B’.”

Research documentation in the Royal British Columbia Museum Indigenous Collections and Repatriation department includes illustrated photographic reference cards containing copies of photographs found in Indigenous audio-visual photographic collections at the Royal BC Museum, and BC Archives. Reference cards include field photographs and studio portraits to a lesser extent. They do not contain the verso of card mounted photographs found in the Indigenous audio-visual photographic collections.
There are also ethno historic photo catalogues that provide item level information (i.e. source of photographs such as which collection, museum or archives) relating to the collection history of photographic items in the Indigenous audio-visual photographic collections. Information in ethno historic photo catalogues can also sometimes provide a small summary of research information about a photograph. Entries here occasionally repeat information (usually caption information) found in Newcombe photograph registers and in the original PN print files, as well as containing other research notes (such as related photographs).

Both illustrated photographic reference cards and ethno historic photo catalogues provide links (alpha-numeric codes) used in original Newcombe photograph registers, early catalog/descriptive records for the museum’s photographic collections and on original prints or modern copy prints. These registers are identified as “Newcombe Register 1 (…Register No.1 –Negative and Lantern Slides (E, E.C., C. Gg, G1, H, V, B, X, S.L.)” and “Newcombe Register 2 (…Register No.2 –Negative and Lantern Slides (C, M.E, N.H, Is., J, L, M, P, R, S, V-E, RC, HI.S).”

Newcombe photograph registers appear to reflect the classification system used by Charles Frederick Newcombe for negatives and lantern slides. Register information includes alpha-numeric codes for negatives, image captions, photographer names, owner/collector of the photographic print, occasionally dates, cross references to alpha-numeric codes for lantern slides, along with other information. In image captions, remarks sometimes include information on the sitter/subject of the portrait or site. Both registers contain entries for lantern slides. “Newcombe Register 1” contains entries #1 to 440 and “Newcombe Register 2” contains entries #433 to 565 (starting on pg. 137). Cataloguing is attributed to C.F. and W.A. Newcombe, along with other individuals responsible for early museum photographic collection cataloging. For examples, see the entry for PN10074 (regarding image HP075169/I-84372 relating to images this series such as J-04191 and J-04202, J-04204 to J-04208) in the ethno historic photo catalogue, which includes the alpha-numeric codes “M124” and lantern slide code “x137.” See also the corresponding entries for “M124 and “x137” in “Newcombe Register 2” and “Newcombe Register 1” respectively. M-E numbers refer to “Maynard Ethnology Negatives” and “x” refers to “Lantern Slides – Negatives not in C.F.N’s [C.F. Newcombe] Possession.” The entry for “x137” in “Newcombe Register 1” states: “x137. M124. Cape Caution –Indians on beach – Houses on bank..[Maynard]”. The entry for “M124” in “Newcombe Register 2” states: “x137. 124. Cape Caution –Smith Inlet Indians. M. 1873”

In the Royal BC Museum's Indigenous Collections and Repatriation department’s original photograph print materials (i.e. PN print cards) and research collections (i.e. illustrated photographic reference cards and ethno historic photo catalogues), the authors of descriptive information (image captions, image descriptions or annotations) are from a variety of sources including creators, collectors, community members and current and past Royal BC Museum staff.

Please contact the Indigenous Collections and Repatriation department to determine the access status of these records.

The Royal BC Museum’s Human History collection holds several examples of presentation staffs (“staff of authority”) in their collections. One item (2009.26.1) includes the following engraving: “Chief of the [Nacaontloon] Indians" or “Chief of the [Macaontloon] Indians.” Please contact the Human History department to determine the access status of these items. See collection items 972.214.1 and 2009.26.1.

Other private records hold related textual records. For textual materials such as photographer Richard Maynard’s personal account of the 1874 tour of inspection with I.W. Powell, see the entry “1874 Round Van. Island on HMS Boxer in one of the Maynard notebooks sometimes referred to as “book1” available in MS-1077 Newcombe Family papers (reel A01764, box/volume 47, file 2a). The notebook consists of a narrative of a general account of the trip with information on voyage route, destinations, weather conditions, status of photographic output, photo lists with associated numbers and general plate descriptions (e.g. “23 Chief’s House at Alert Bay”). General plate descriptions are found at the rear of the notebook. There are a small number of Indigenous names (i.e. place names) recorded here. In some instances, outdated terms are present in this volume used by Richard Maynard to identify Indigenous people and communities. For an example, historical terminology found in photographic captions reflect terms used in Chinook jargon (e.g. the use of the English term "Squaw" which has translated to “Kloochman” in Chinook, of which the Chinook term “Kloochman” has translated to “Woman; female” in English). In addition, there are also typed research notes that interpret these original records, also available in MS-1077. These records were microfilmed in the 1980s and in 2002. Some microfilmed records were not captured in their entirety. Original records contain additional information. Within the original notebook, there are two advertisements for photographic businesses of Mrs. R. Maynard and R. Maynard at the front. A number of pages are cut from the book after the section marked "Round Vancouver Island 1874." The book also includes other potentially unrelated photographic voyages. Please contact the BC Archives to determine the use, reproduction, and publication status of records other that microfilmed surrogates. Described as Newcombe Family fonds – PR-0356.

For related records from photographer Frederick Dally regarding the Indigenous communities visited on his tour on the H.M.S. Scout in1866, print photographs may be available in select Dally albums and posters, located in PR- 1380 described as the Frederick Dally fonds.

In this collection, there are also a small number of studio portraits (original negatives) for a well-known Indigenous leader the Powell party met during the 1874 tour. Represented here include Nuu-chah-nulth Chief “Seta Canim”/”Seta-ka-nim” of Tla-o-qui-aht (Clayoquot). See MS-3374 described as Indigenous studio portraits of Mrs. R. Maynard’s Photographic Gallery (PR-1259 Maynard family collection).

The Newcombe Family fonds – PR-0356, also contains print studio portraits or field photographs that may relate to this series. For a studio portrait marketed by Mrs. R. Maynard and identified as “Bishop Seegers,” see accession 197812-16 (box 11, file 370).

For government records, there are several resources that relate to the tours of inspection for 1873 and 1874.

The BC Archives holds an index “British Columbia Sessional Papers Index, 1872-1916” and is available as a BC History reference guide through the BC Archives website. Microfilmed copies of these Sessional Papers are available at BC Archives (see microfilm D24-D26). Sessional Papers feature reports from I.W. Powell in 1874 and 1875 that mention the tours of the early1870s. See the report identified as “No. 28 (b) October 29, 1874” regarding the September 1874 tour (pages 50-53) and the report identified as “No. 29 February 4th, 1875” for the year ending “30 June 1874” in Sessional Papers (No. 8) pages 62-68. These are detailed accounts.

Department of Indian Affairs (RG10) contains reports by Rear Admiral and Commander in Chief Arthur A. Farquhar (see black series, volume 3604, file 2753) and Superintendent of Indian Affairs, Israel Wood Powell (see black series, volume 3602, file 1794) for the 1873 H.M.S. Boxer tour. The report by I.W. Powell includes a list of 19 views sent, details of the colonial government-to-Indigenous government relationship at communities visited, activities conducted during the tour, mentions of the activities of previous tours, and observations on Indigenous life and lifeways including seasonal activities, lands and natural resources. The report includes mentions and lists of names of Indigenous representatives and communities reported to have visited and sometimes interviewed. Information content is similar, but with more detail, than the account published in The British Colonist in 1873. Microfilmed copies of these reports are available at the Union of BC Indian Chiefs (UBCIC) Library & Archives (see microfilm Library and Archives Canada reel #C-10104 for the Powell report and C-10105 for the Farquhar report). The BC Archives also holds microfilmed copies of these reports (see BC Archives reel #B277 for the Powell report and reel #B278 for the Farquhar report). Described at the BC Archives as GR-1751 Central Registry System: Black (Western) series, located in PR-2104 - Department of Indian Affairs and Northern Development fonds)

BC Archives also holds the following useful research guides available via the BC Archives website or in the reference room: “First Nations Research Guide” (includes links to Indigenous authored research resources such as “Stolen Lands, Broken Promises” from the Union of British Columbia Indian Chiefs), “Colonial correspondence,” “Quick Guide to Land Records” (regarding sourcing information in colonial correspondence index and James Douglas reserve policies or links to Inventory 25 for selected RG-10/Indian Affairs records and GR-2982 regarding the Joint Reserve Commission, 1876-1907 also in Inventory 25), “Fort Victoria Treaties” and “”Fort Victoria Treaties Correspondence” (regarding sourcing information on James Douglas treaties, reserves of land and resources circa 1850-1854) and “BC Sessional Papers” (regarding sourcing information on selected papers and departmental reports published in the annual collection, including those from Indian Affairs and feature information related to reserves of land and resources created in the 19th century).

Related materials

Accruals

General note

Accession number(s): Found in BC Archives in 2008, reaccessioned as 95-7328-3.

General note

Archives code(s): MS-3378

General note

Archives code(s):J-0417, [J-04141], [J-04154], [J-04158], [J-04159], J-04170, J-04180
J-04191, J-04192, J-04201, J-04202, J-04203, J-04204, J-04205, J-04206, J-04207, J-04208, J-04209, J-04213, J-04215, J-04216, J-04217, J-04218, J-04219, J-04220, J-04221, J-04222, J-04223, J-04224, J-04225, [J-04226], J-04533, J-04534, J-04535

General note

Archives code(s):
HP016444, HP094551, F-08845, HP034128/HP016576, HP093312/F-05173, HP094546, HP007954, HP094555, HP094554.

Note: This is not a comprehensive list. Available numbers are listed here but more may be available upon further research. See card mounted prints previously transferred to Royal BC Museum’s Indigenous Collections from the BC Archives. Not all items in this series have been identified previously with HP numbers. Some photographs have been assigned identifiers for the first time in 2019.

General note

Location(s): 000343-1018, 000343-1019, 000343-1020, 000343-1021, 000343-1022, 000343-1023.

General note

There are alternative captions and numbers located on labels and stickers adhered to the surface of some of the photographs. There are different types of labels and stickers used within the same series. Some are presumed to be [Provincial Library] descriptive titles and identification numbers, while the authors of others are unknown. As an example, see J-04170 where the [Provincial Library] label attached to the surface of the glass contains the following information: "Rascals Bella Coola." See also J-04536, where the [Provincial Library] label attached to the surface of the glass contains the following information:"13." Of the labels which the author is known, these captions and numbers appear handwritten on strips of tape (some masking tape) adhered to the glass negative.

General note

This series contains negatives formerly housed in multiple BC Archive and Records Service manuscript containers. Labels on these containers note the following information: “Maynard Coll. Box 16. Catalogued plates have been removed & filed with "originals" see list inside HP97648-50" and "#1"; “Maynard Coll. Box 5.5. Ships & Shipping [HMS Boxer, trip up west coast] c.12 plates” and "78"; "Maynard Coll. Box 7.2. Indians (Northern B.C. Indian) [Port Simpson, Port Essington, Bella Coola etc. 5x stereos 8 plates" and "#83"; "Maynard Coll. Box 7.4. Indians" and "#84"; "Maynard Coll. Box 7.7. Indians" and "#86"; "Maynard Coll. Box 7.10. Indians (Indians near Cape Caution and Metlaktla [12 plates]" and "#89"; "Maynard Coll. Box 7.16." West Coast Indians [Barkley & Nootka Sound] [Voyage HMS Boxer, Sept 1874] 19 plates" and "#93"; "Maynard Coll. Box 7.17." Indians (incomplete)” and "#94."

General note

This series contains negatives formerly housed in original negative boxes with [Provincial Library] labels and stickers placed on boxes. The following several boxes were located with the following information:

A box containing the label information: “Box 7.7 Indians: Alert Bay. Bella Coola. Smith’s Inlet. Haidas,” a sticker with the information "Box 7.7 Indians.”

A box containing the label information: “Box 7.2 Indians: Rascels Cove, Bella Coola. Fort Rupert. Rev. Crosby and Queen Vic. Oolachan drying, Naas River . Port Simpson. Port Essington,” a sticker with the information "Box 7.2 Indians.”

A box containing the label information: “Box 7.4 Indians: Songhees Victoria. Departure Bay. Prince of Wales Island. Friendly Cove. Gordon Head-Clam Bake. Uplands. Russell Station. Quatsino” a sticker with the information "Box 7.4 Indians.”

General note

This series contains negatives formerly housed in original negative boxes. Some of these boxes contain handwritten descriptions on the sides and edges of the container. The creator of this content is not yet known. For examples, see these several boxes which were located with the following information:

A box containing the following handwritten description directly on the box: “Alert Bay etc. Indians.” (see Box 7.7).

A box containing the following handwritten description directly on the box: “Northern BC Indians” (see Box 7.2).

A box containing the following handwritten description directly on the box: “Indians – V.I.” (See Box 7.4).

General note

These 19th century photographic documents were created in the era after missionary activity and mission establishment in B.C. First Nations communities in the 1860s on Vancouver Island and British Columbia mainland. They were also created before the beginning of the establishment of the Indian residential schools in British Columbia the 1870s and before the federal Indian Act in the late 1870s. These photographs were also produced after the establishments of early Indian “reserves” through the James Douglas treaties (1850s), post those established under Joseph Trutch (1860s) and before the Joint Indian Reserve Commission was established in 1876. Israel Wood Powell was the regional Department of Indian Affairs Superintendent from 1872. By the early 1880s, Department of Indian Affairs administration had expanded to create a network of regional field agencies and appointed field agents. Images in this series were created by Richard Maynard before the federal and provincial regulation of fishing rights and lands, and establishment of the colonial commercial fishing industry beginning in the late 1870s. Visual records in MS-3374 appear prior to potlach prohibitions via the Indian Act in the mid 1880s, and scientific research expeditions carried out by collectors of Indigenous material culture for collecting institutions and museums beginning in the 1880s and 1890s.

General note

Department of Indian Affairs “visits of inspection” were reported in the news media to have interacted with members of religious clergy, such as those of the Roman Catholic Church who were present in some of the Indigenous communities visited along tour routes. Father Augustin J. Brabant and the Reverend Charles J. Seghers, Bishop of Victoria were passengers on the Maynard and Powell tour of 1874, joining between Friendly Cove and Kyuquot Sound on the west coast of Vancouver Island. Father Fonquet was reported in the news media meeting I.W. Powell in Fort Rupert on the tour of 1873.

General note

Tours may have included the use of interpreters, such as the son of Mr. Hunt of the Hudson’s Bay Company reported in the news media as joining the colonial party during the tour of 1873. Also mentioned in the news media, the use of a “Ahehant tribe interpreter” during a visit to the Nuu-chah-nulth nations of the southern region at Green Cove on September 7 and a meeting with the “Ohiet” [Huu-ay-aht] and “Owchucklisaht” at a “Owchucklisaht tribe [fishing] village.”

General note

From 1874 to 1892, the studio was located on Douglas and Johnston streets in Victoria, B.C.

General note

Both Hannah and Richard Maynard made multiple photographic field trips throughout their professional careers and personal lives that took them through many destinations on Vancouver Island and mainland British Columbia. In the 1870s, other photographic work journeys included a trip Hannah and Richard Maynard took together around Vancouver Island in 1879. Destinations on this journey included many of the same destinations visited on the H.M.S. Boxer trips of 1873 and 1874.

General note

Some of the field photographs featured in this series were later marketed by Richard Maynard’s son Albert H. Maynard. Albert H. advertised his services on the back of a card mounted print of a field photograph featured in this series (see J-04221). The imprint on that card reads: “Albert H. Maynard, Naturalist and Taxidermist. Address: R. Maynard, Photographer, Cor. Douglas and Johnson Streets, Victoria, BC.” Albert Maynard operated photographic businesses with several locations over the course of his lifetime. He held business operations in Victoria, including at Pandora and Yates Streets. A.H. Maynard advertised under various names such as "Albert H. Maynard, successor to R. Maynard, Photographic Supplies and Apparatus" and "Albert H. Maynard, Photographic Supplies + Apparatus" throughout the 1910s and 1920s. Near the end of his life in the early 1930s, Albert appears to have facilitated the distribution of field photographs also featured in this series to educational institutions which may have included the University of California in the United States. Distributed works included anthropological and ethnographic documentary photographs representing the territorial lands, resources, cultures, and lifeways of British Columbia’s Indigenous and First Nation communities.

Physical description

Some photographs contain typed captions located within the photographic image. For an example see J-04180, which contains a caption with the following information: "Photo of Maynard's Boat Crew At Barclay Sound, V.I."

Alpha-numeric designations

Some photographs contain numbers scratched on the surface of the glass plate negative. In some instances, there are multiple numbers inscribed. These are presumed to be the photographer's negative numbers or numbers assigned to images during the course of facilitating their use, reproduction or publication. For an example see J-04213, which has the number "189" etched into the surface of the plate.

Accompanying material

The Maynard family research files contain information and records relating to Richard Maynard’s field photographs taken of Indigenous people, lifeways, lands, resources and communities featured in this series. Files include copies of newspaper articles, research notes, copies of Department of Indian Affairs records (including Powell and Farquhar reports of the 1873 H.M.S. Boxer trip), Royal Navy lists for 1873 and 1874, along with other material. For examples see the following files: “Trip of Boxer May 26-June 17, 1873 (file 6),” “Boxer Trip May – June, 1873,” “Boxer Trip Sept, 1874,” “Trip aboard HMS Boxer Sept. 1874 (file 3).” Other files relate to the distribution of Maynard photographic works by Hannah Maynard and her son Albert H Maynard, including some of the field photographs taken of Indigenous people, lifeways, lands and communities featured in this series. Records include copies of correspondence and photo lists. See file “AH Maynard Lists + Photo Orders, File 26,” “Documentation Hannah Maynard and Peabody Museum of Archaeology and Ethnology,” “Catalogue Reference Cards File 1” and “Maynard photos, Richard, File 22.” Some of these materials are reproductions from the series MS 1077 - described as the “Newcombe family papers.” There are also a small number of research files on Indigenous communities featured in this series. These files were created by current and past staff and researchers of BC Archives. Please contact the BC Archives to determine the access status of these records.

Accompanying material

Additional documentation regarding Richard Maynard’s field photographs featured in this series is available.

Documentation can be found in the research files for the 2010 Royal BC Museum publication “Images from the Likeness House” by former Collections Manager for the Royal BC Museum’s Indigenous Audiovisual Collections Dan Savard. The publication and associated research files feature works featured in this series. There are resources to provide general information on the photographs. This material was created by current and past staff and researchers of the Royal BC Museum and includes biographical, contextual, and photographic research information. Frequently this includes reproductions of published articles, related photographs held at BC Archives, the Royal BC Museum and other institutions, copies of related ethnographic publications, as well as research notes. Please contact the Indigenous Collections and Repatriation department to determine the access status of these records. For examples see files for PN-4708 (page 85), PN-10503 (page 85), PN-2094-A and PN-2094-B (pages 88-89), PN 2096 (page 95) and PN 10508 (page 96).

The Maynard family research files contain information and records relating to Richard Maynard’s field photographs taken of Indigenous people, lifeways, lands, resources and communities featured in this series. Files include copies of newspaper articles, research notes, copies of Department of Indian Affairs records (including Powell and Farquhar reports of the 1873 H.M.S. Boxer trip), Royal Navy lists for 1873 and 1874, along with other material. For examples see the following files: “Trip of Boxer May 26-June 17, 1873 (file 6),” “Boxer Trip May – June, 1873,” “Boxer Trip Sept, 1874,” “Trip aboard HMS Boxer Sept. 1874 (file 3).” Other files relate to the distribution of Maynard photographic works by Hannah Maynard and her son Albert H Maynard, including some of the field photographs taken of Indigenous people, lifeways, lands and communities featured in this series. Records include copies of correspondence and photo lists. See file “AH Maynard Lists + Photo Orders, File 26,” “Documentation Hannah Maynard and Peabody Museum of Archaeology and Ethnology,” “Catalogue Reference Cards File 1” and “Maynard photos, Richard, File 22.” Some of these materials are reproductions from the series MS 1077 - described as the “Newcombe family papers.” There are also a small number of research files on Indigenous communities featured in this series. These files were created by current and past staff and researchers of BC Archives. Please contact the BC Archives to determine the access status of these records.

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