Indigenous peoples--British Columbia--Skeena Region



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  • Based on work done by the Manitoba Archival Information Network

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Indigenous peoples--British Columbia--Skeena Region

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Indigenous peoples--British Columbia--Skeena Region

  • UF Indians--British Columbia--Skeena Region

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Indigenous peoples--British Columbia--Skeena Region

68 Archival description results for Indigenous peoples--British Columbia--Skeena Region

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Agnes K. Johnson interview

CALL NUMBER: T1197:0001 SUPPLIED TITLE OF TAPE(S): Agnes Johnson : the story of Cedarvale (Minskinisht) before 1900 : part 1 PERIOD COVERED: 1860s-1900 RECORDED: [location unknown], 1961-07-12 SUMMARY: TRACK 1: Mrs. Johnson (nee Tomlinson) speaks about 19th century Cedarvale (Minskinisht), the significance of its location, background information regarding Rev. Robert Tomlinson's establishment of a m;ission based on Rev. Duncan's methods (1888), the family's journey to Kitwanga, (long pause in tape) the winter of 1887-88 at Kitwanga, the Tomlinson's family settle at Minskinisht (1888), first buildings, the community's government, teaching Indians, church services, the sawmill, manufacturing bricks and the population and language of the community. TRACK 2: Agnes Johnson continues talking about; the Minskinisht community: manufacturing the bricks, an incident with a canoe transporting bricks, the rules of the community, layout of the town and residential lots, the trapping business, communal; fish canning, 5 acre lots, (pause in tape), church services, bible training and the interior of the church. Information is provided about Robert Tomlinson's family background, his early years in Ire;land and an incident with the Indians on the Nass River.

CALL NUMBER: T1197:0002 SUPPLIED TITLE OF TAPE(S): Agnes Johnson : the story of Cedarvale (Minskinisht) before 1900 : part 2 PERIOD COVERED: 1868-1900 RECORDED: [location unknown], 1961-07-12 SUMMARY: TRACK 1: Agnes Johnson continues with the discussion about the early years of Minskinisht. She recounts Robert Tomlinson's marriage in Victoria to Alice Mary, daughter of Sheriff Woods and niece of Archbishop Woods (1868) at the Iron Church and their trip to the Nass, (very long pause in the tape). She continues speaking about Robert Tomlinson's philosophy, wages, supplies at the store, finances, life in the community, Christmas celebrations, Tomlinson's family life and education, the mowing machine, the telegraph line, the mission house, plants from Ireland, the government surveys and reserve;s, Cedarvale taken up by the Tomlinson family and leased to the Indians, and riverboat signals. TRACK 2: Agnes Johnson continues with recollections about the riverboat signals, incidents, the arrival; of the first steamboat at Minskinisht, the nickname "Holy City", stories about the arrival of boats, building the new church, Edward Stewart's gift, Robert and Richard Tomlinson's work as telegraph linesmen and mail delivery. (pause in the tape). An amusing story about a problem mail delivery and her father, Richard Tomlinson's opinion of the Indian's character illustrated with two stories.

Alan Benson interview

CALL NUMBER: T1200:0001 SUPPLIED TITLE OF TAPE(S): Alan Benson : the Hazelton area, 1923-1961 PERIOD COVERED: 1923-1961 RECORDED: [location unknown], 1961-07-12 SUMMARY: TRACK 1: Alan Benson recalls coming to Hazelton (1923), his first impressions of the area, old-timers including: "Happy Turner", George Birnes, "Dutch" Cline and Dave Wiggins [sp?], changes in Hazelton (1923-61), the physical situation of the three Hazeltons, the railroad and New Hazelton. TRACK 2: Alan Benson talks about methods for getting supplies to the north country; taking the steamer to Hazelton onto Babine, the schooner to the headwaters and across the portage to Stuart Lake. (Tape sound quality is poor, stops and varies). He describes packers and pack trains, repacking at Two Mile, trails, bridges, an Indian bridge over Babine River, Second Cabin and a story about a trip to Second Cabin to apprehend an insane man.

CALL NUMBER: T1200:0002 SUPPLIED TITLE OF TAPE(S): Alan Benson : packing, pack trains and the Skeena country, 1923-1961 PERIOD COVERED: 1923-1961 RECORDED: [location unknown], 1961-07-12 SUMMARY: TRACK 1: Alan Benson describes the pack trains and packing methods used by George Birnes, the aparejos Mexican pack rigging, packing a horse or mule, a typical day on the pack train, the horse wrangler, carrigudor [sp?] and stevedore, freight loads, qualities of a pack horse or mule and Poison Mountain. He talks about the photographic work of Howard Innis who studied the Skeena River country, the National Film Board later used his work to make the "Skeena River Trap Line" and "People of the Skeena". The Babine River Slide (1952) is also discussed.

Bert and Sarah Glassey interview

CALL NUMBER: T1193:0001 SUPPLIED TITLE OF TAPE(S): Bert and Sarah Glassey : Hazelton, 1900-1914 PERIOD COVERED: 1900-1914 RECORDED: [location unknown], 1961-06-28 SUMMARY: TRACK 1: Joseph H.F. "Bert" Glassey recalls coming to Hazelton from 150 Mile House in 1904, details of the Indian "uprising" at Hazelton, impressions of George Birnes and the background to the Simon G;unanoot affair. TRACK 2: Bert Glassey recalls some of the early residents of Hazelton, Jim May, Jean Caux (Cataline), the telegraph line, Jack Graham, the pack trains and the Tom Hankin family -- Connie Cox. Mrs. Sarah Glassey talks about coming to Hazelton (1906), the journey to visit her relatives, the return trip along the Skeena, her first impressions of Hazelton, local residents and her second trip in 1910.

CALL NUMBER: T1193:0002 SUPPLIED TITLE OF TAPE(S): Sarah Glassey : homesteading in the Hazelton area, 1911-1914 PERIOD COVERED: 1907-1914 RECORDED: [location unknown], 1961-06-28 SUMMARY: TRACK 1: Mrs. Glassey continues with her impressions of Hazelton ca.1910, becoming the "first woman pre-emptor in B.C." -- 1911, plans for her house, incidents along her journey to Hazelton on the "In;lander", settling in her homestead, hunting skills, her homestead and the Kispiox Valley. [Track 2: blank.]

Between ourselves : Kitselas Canyon

SUMMARY: "Between Ourselves" was a weekly series of hour-long radio programs that presented Canada to Canadians. It featured aspects of Canadian life in docudramas, plays, music, and interviews, originating fr;om different regions of Canada. The series ran from 1966 to 1979. This episode, "Kitselas Canyon", is based on a visit to Kitselas Canyon on the Skeena River, and a discussion of its history: the native people and their legends, the arrival of the Europeans, the days of the sternwheelers, and the coming of the railroad. The program is a CBC Vancouver production, compiled, written and produced by Imbert Orchard. The voices heard include Dave Walker, Ben Boulton, Wiggs O'Neill, and John Morrison. The story teller is Michael Irwin.;

Canada. Supreme Court.

Reasons for judgement in case of Frank Calder et al. vs. Attorney General of British Columbia (Nishga Tribal Lands case). Appeal heard Nov 29 - Dec 3, 1971; judgement given Jan 31, 1973.

Canada. Supreme Court

Constance Cox interview

CALL NUMBER: T0313:0001 SUPPLIED TITLE OF TAPE(S): Constance Cox : recollections : part 1 RECORDED: Hazelton (B.C.), 1959 SUMMARY: TRACK 1: Constance Cox (nee Hankin) begins this tape with a story about her uncle Charlie Hankin (partner of Billy Barker) and his promise to Josephine, the dance hall hostess at Barkerville, about her burial. A story is told about Isaac, a Babine Indian, who was awarded medals from the Humane Society and the Catholic Church. She talks about the background to the "Skeena River Rebellion" of the 18;80's. TRACK 2: This tape continues with the "Skeena River Rebellion", a childhood story about measles, Constance Cox's childhood at Hazelton, her family, the Manson Creek gold rush -- 1870, Indian women packers into Manson Creek, Cataline, Erza Evans and mining on Manson Creek.;

CALL NUMBER: T0313:0002 SUPPLIED TITLE OF TAPE(S): Constance Cox : recollections : part 2 RECORDED: Hazelton (B.C.), 1959 SUMMARY: TRACK 1: Constance Cox relates the following legends: the legend of the Sunbeam which is depicted on a Chilkat Blanket from Kitwanga and the adoption of the fireweed as the clan symbol at Kispiox; the; Frog legend depicted on a totem pole at Kitwancool and a Haida legend depicted on a totem pole about cruelty to animals. Indian foods and cooking methods are discussed. TRACK 2: Constance Cox continues with her discussion about Indian foods, collecting sap from evergreens, berries, wild vegetables, medicinal preparations, an incident while nursing for Dr. Wrinch at Hazelton concerning a women with cancer and another nursing story.

CALL NUMBER: T0313:0003 SUPPLIED TITLE OF TAPE(S): Constance Cox : recollections : part 3 RECORDED: Hazelton (B.C.), 1959 SUMMARY: TRACK 1: Constance Cox relates a story about an Indian woman called "Emma". She continues with a story about Captain Fitzgerald (Gold Commissioner) who was taken prisoner at Kitseguecla (Skeena Crossing) and the subsequent trial (1871). She speaks about the first Reserve Commissioner Peter O'Reilly, the reaction to reserves in Kispiox, A.W. Vowell, the next Reserve Commissioner, and the Kitwancool Indians. TRACK 2: Constance Cox continues speaking about A.W. Vowell and the Reserve Commission at Kitwancool, the Kitwancool Indians, "Kitwancool Jim" and the Kitwancool totem pole histories. She speaks about the Collins and Yukon Telegraph lines, building the lines, the operators and linesmen and the visit of a "globe-trotting" woman -- Thea Francis (1920?).

CALL NUMBER: T0313:0004 SUPPLIED TITLE OF TAPE(S): Constance Cox : recollections : part 4 RECORDED: Hazelton (B.C.), 1959 SUMMARY: TRACK 1: Constance Cox relates her childhood memories of a canoe trip up the Skeena River (ca.1900). She speaks about Bishop Ridley, the Diocese of Caledonia, Metlakatla, Haida canoes, incidents along; the canoe journey, towing canoes upriver, dangers along the Skeena, villages, the "Mount Royal" paddlewheeler and Haida children learning canoe skills. TRACK 2: This tape begins with a description of a totem pole raising ceremony at Kitwancool, tragedies of the "Trail of '98", Rev. Harold Alfred Sheldon (c.1884), the Inverness Cannery and her father's business interests, Father Morice and his work with the Carrier Indians and the visit of the Catholic Bishop (Bishop Dontonwell?).

CALL NUMBER: T0313:0005 SUPPLIED TITLE OF TAPE(S): Constance Cox : recollections : part 5 RECORDED: Hazelton (B.C.), 1959 SUMMARY: TRACK 1: This tape provides a continuation of Constance Cox's recollection of the visit of the Catholic Bishop to the Carrier Indians at Babine, more details about Father Morice's work -- his book and; map, his relationship with the Hudson's Bay Company at Fort St. James, a description of the destruction of his printing press, Father Morice's penance and later years, incidents at Fort St. James and; the HBC factor at Fort Fraser, Mr. Sinclair. TRACK 2: Constance Cox continues with more recollections about Mr. Sinclair and his grave at Fort Fraser. She speaks about the destruction of Indian culture, the language of the Tsimshian, Gitksan and Carrier Indians, the white settlers who learned the native languages, her role as an interpreter, the Gitksan language, the "White Cross Society", native art, totem carving past and present, erection of a new totem pole and the legend of the Kispiox -- House of the Beaver.

CALL NUMBER: T0313:0006 SUPPLIED TITLE OF TAPE(S): Constance Cox : recollections : part 6 RECORDED: Hazelton (B.C.), 1959 SUMMARY: TRACK 1: The legend of the Kispiox -- House of the Beaver is continued on this tape. Constance Cox provides additional information about the Gitksan language, her background in native languages, the Methodist missionary at Hazelton -- Mr. Matheson (1871), the Anglican missionaries (1880), the "Queek", the Gitksan as carvers and designers and the dispute over ownership of the Bulkley Canyon c.1900.; TRACK 2: This tape continues with a description of the dispute over the Bulkley Canyon, a Gitksan artist -- Gisemax (sp), other Hazelton incidents, and a story about the group of American miners and adventurers under Mr. Gryder that arrived in Hazelton under the false assumption that gold had been discovered.

CALL NUMBER: T0313:0007 SUPPLIED TITLE OF TAPE(S): Constance Cox : recollections : part 7 RECORDED: Hazelton (B.C.), 1959 SUMMARY: TRACK 1: Constance Cox remembers her father, Thomas Hankin, his background, his coming to British Columbia (1857) as a Hudson's Bay Company factor and establishing the Hudson's Bay Post at the Skeena-Bulkley junction, his first encounters with the Indians, the song of the "iron kettles", his staking of the town site of Hazelton (1858), the 1870 Manson Creek Goldrush, story of a greenhorn and the naming of Frying Pan Mountain, William Manson and miners drowned in Kitselas Canyon. She continues with Thomas Hankin's business interests, his role in the Masonic order, Constance Cox's education, her step-father -- R.E. Loring, The Inverness Cannery, Thomas Hankin's death, his brothers -- Phillip and Charlie Hankin and the Hudson's Bay Company fur trade. TRACK 2: Constance Cox recounts childhood memories, Simon Gunanoot as a child, the Trail of '98 -- May to October 1898, Cox as nurse and doctor to Indians and 98'ers, stories and incidents, the story of the murder of Sir Arthur Curtis, Tom Hankin Jr. losing cattle on Poison Mountain and patients at the dispensary.

CALL NUMBER: T0313:0008 SUPPLIED TITLE OF TAPE(S): Constance Cox : recollections : part 8 RECORDED: Hazelton (B.C.), 1959 SUMMARY: TRACK 1: The trail of '98 patients at the Hazelton dispensary and the rescue and nursing of Frank Farling is recalled by Constance Cox. She relates a personal anecdote about a "love letter" and Moosekin Johnny's Restaurant. [TRACK 2: blank.]

Dick Lattie interview

SUPPLIED TITLE OF TAPE(S): Chief Dick Lattie : Hazelton Indians (Gitksan) RECORDED: Hazelton (B.C.), [196-?] SUMMARY: TRACK 1: In this interview, Chief Dick Lattie of the Gitksan tribe at Hazelton speaks about his birth and family, his family house, "Gitanmaax" -- the Indian name for the Hazelton area, the first vil;lage, the arrival of the first white settlers, his grandfather -- Chief Katamaldo (sp), dances and celebrations, pre-contact trade between the Babine/Nass and Skeena, and ceremonial objects. [TRACK 2;: blank.]

Dora Flewin interview ; Rev. Robert Faris interview

SUPPLIED TITLE OF TAPE(S): Port Simpson Mission 100th anniversary PERIOD COVERED: 1914-1948 RECORDED: Port Simpson (B.C.), 1974 SUMMARY: Dora Flewin: Father was the Reverend J.C. Spencer, minister at Port Simpson from 1914-21. She describes training for nursing. Discusses doctors, nurses and the Girls' Home in Port Simpson. Conditions at the Methodist Mission and the hospital. [Interview date: 1974-11-10] Reverend Robert Faris: Discusses history of the 'Ksan project at Hazelton, and the arts and crafts of the Northwest Coast native peoples.; [The tape may also include a brief interview with Reverend John Williams of Kitamaat Village, who is of Haida ancestry.];

Flora Martin interview

SUPPLIED TITLE OF TAPE(S): Flora Martin remembers the Hazelton area before World War I PERIOD COVERED: 1890s-1914 RECORDED: [location unknown], [1964-09?] SUMMARY: TRACK 1: Flora Martin, wife of George Franklin Martin, begins this interview speaking about the arrival of the steamboats at Hazelton, McIntosh's Landing, the purser -- Mr. Lockerby, steamboat noises,; freight canoes, more about the arrival of boats at Hazelton, news of the wreck of "The Mount Royal" (1907), the Hudson's Bay Company store, Cunningham's store, Sargent's store, Hazelton, the Rev. John Field, the Indian language, the legend of an abandoned Indian village -- Dimlhamet (sp?) and pronunciation and meaning of Indian place names in the Hazelton area. TRACK 2: Flora Martin recalls pack; trains and local characters at Hazelton: Cataline, Cayuse Jack Graham, Barney Mulvaney, Dick Sargent, Dr. H.C. Wrinch and changes in Hazelton.

Fort St. James, Hagwilget and Moricetown : [CFPR interviews]

CALL NUMBER: T1061:0001
SUMMARY: These tapes comprise a series of unedited interviews with residents of Fort St. James, Hagwilget and Moricetown, recorded by CBC producer Norman Newton.
TRACK 1: DONALD GRAY, Sun Chief at Hagwilget, tells legends of Carrier prophet "Bini", as well as the origin of Saskatoon berries, and the relationship between men and animals. He then sings several songs and explains their meanings. DAVID DENNIS of Moricetown sings a song about "Bini", then a love song that he composed. LIZETTE HALL, a member of the Fort St. James Historical Society and the great-granddaughter of the famous Carrier Chief Kwah, tells the story of the first missionary, as told to her by her father. The Natives were afraid of him because, after seeing him lighti a match, they understood him to be a man made of fire.
RACK 2: Mrs. Hall continues by telling the story of how her father was first baptized at the age of four by Bishop Demers, and the impact of the missionaries on the community. She discusses her father's view on religion be;fore the white people came. Then JOHN PRINCE, who is the Catholic native chief, sings a song composed by Father Morice, and explains the song; then continues to sing several more songs. Mr. Prince tells several more stories, including how the first missionaries arrived, why the HBC named the local natives Carrier, and why natives no longer trap. John Prince expresses his regret at the loss of "old fashioned ways" and the negative impact of contact with "whites". Then he recalls his experiences as a child with Father Morice. This is followed by several more songs, and Prince's discussion of the conversion of the Carrier to Christianity. He adds that most natives are no longer interested in the church, and describes the difference among church law, state law and the Carrier religion.

CALL NUMBER: T1061:0002 RECORDED: [location unknown], [196-] SUMMARY: TRACK 1: Mr. ALEX McKINNON, a native sawmill worker at Fort St. James, discusses Carrier history, beginning with the arrival in 1842 of Catholic priest Father Demers and his half-breed Cree interpreter. He describes the native population at Fort St. James and their customs, and how the priest imposed monogamous marriages, including the story of a man who loved both of his wives but was forced to sell one. Then he describes later priests, and more on the life of native people at Fort St. James. Mr. McKinnon recalls an experience in 1946, when he was invited by Andy Paul, of the North American Brotherhood of Indians, to join him in Ottawa to speak on what natives wanted; problems with schools; how he was received in Ottawa. Then CHIPMAN WELLS, boat builder at Fort St. James, describes Fort St. James when he arrived in 1924, and his experiences as a boat builder. He continues to describe Stuart Lake; Fort St. James, and the impact of "whites" upon natives. TRACK 2: EVELYN M. HOY of the Fort St. James Historical Society tells the story of the murder of two German prospectors in 1930. The subsequent inquiry focused on native suspects, until the arrest in Alberta of a former companion of the prospectors. After several trials, he was acquitted. A few years later, he was arrested for possession of firearms and deported back to Germany. Mrs. Hoy was told that the German government, then controlled by the Nazi party, shot him for murder of three other people.

CALL NUMBER: T1061:0002 track 2 item 02 SUMMARY: After the last interview, there are some fragments of CBC Radio programs that were present on the tapes before the interviews were recorded over them. These begin with a musical excerpt from the program "Records for You" and an advertisement for the Devonshire Hotel in Vancouver. This is followed by an advertisement for the Grand Cafe in Prince Rupert, and an excerpt from the program "Talk of the; Town", described a "weekly sound picture of the city of Prince Rupert". This excerpt contains an interview with Tommy Black, Rotary Club past president and manager of the Northern BC Power Company, about the history, principals and goals of the Rotary Club. He mentions some accomplishments of the Prince Rupert local including helping start the nurses home, the public library, the Civic Centre,; and homes for seniors. The program concludes with an announcement of upcoming shows, including an interview with George Wilkins of Port Edward about his experience sailing from Honolulu to Tahiti, and with Eva Kirkwood Hackett about her long career in theatre.

Frank Chettleburgh interview

SUPPLIED TITLE OF TAPE(S): Francis Bell Chettleburgh : Hazelton and Telkwa regions PERIOD COVERED: 1909-1925 RECORDED: [location unknown], 1962-03-26 SUMMARY: TRACK 1: Francis "Chet" Chettleburgh speaks about his trip up the Skeena to Hazelton 1909, travelling on the sternwheeler "Port Simpson" from Port Essington, impressions of Hazelton, the Rev. J. Field;, Sealyville (sp), Indian disturbances at Kispiox and Kitwancool, Hazelton residents, the Two Mile "red light district", Barney Mulvaney and George Birnes' mail route, Rev. Tomlinson and the mission at Minskinisht. He recalls Hazelton's hotels, stores, families, recreation, residents, regular visitors, Indians, social life, the Hazelton of 1911, "Cataline" and "Blackjack McDonald". TRACK 2: Francis Chettleburgh continues with recollections about Hazelton. He recalls Sarah Glassey, her "Rabbit Ranch" and her "dining room", the Hudson's Bay Company warehouse -- "Stonehouse" liquor dispensory, names of local packers, Groundhog Valley description and mines, Dick Sargent and Indian workers. He talks about his move to Telkwa, his stores, Rene Degville, Jack McNeil and his hotel, Mike Touhy, Joe Bourgon and Sarah Bourgon (nee Capewell), Charles Orchard, the feelings of brotherhood for men in the country, Eli Culbertson (sp) and a local incident.

George Wright interview

SUPPLIED TITLE OF TAPE(S): George Wright talks about prehistoric Kitselas Canyon RECORDED: [location unknown], [196-] SUMMARY: TRACK 1: George Wright talks about Kitselas Canyon. He speaks about the Indian names for the canyon, the canyon's natural fortifications and the Kitselas Indian band who screened travellers passing through, thus allowing the canyon to function as a "customs house". His mentions the Skeena River ("K'shien"), the Eagle tribe, Kitsumkalum and his father (Walter Wright) who worked for Captain Bonser. [TRACK 2: blank.]

Henry Little interview

SUPPLIED TITLE OF TAPE(S): Henry H. Little describes Prince Rupert 1908 and the Hazelton region, 1910-1920 PERIOD COVERED: 1908-1920s RECORDED: [location unknown], 1962-03-31 SUMMARY: TRACK 1: Henry Hyslop Little talks about coming to Prince Rupert (1908) and being sent to open the Union Bank in Hazelton (1910). He describes his trip up the Skeena and arrival in Hazelton, establishing the bank, the Hazelton town site, buildings, Rev. John Field, Charles F. Morison, merchants, Dick Sargent, hotel proprietors, Walter Williscroft, early residents, housing, the climate and natural; beauty, the native population, bank customers -- geographical range, packers: Cataline, Charleson/Barrett and George Birnes, Barney Mulvaney, Maitland Dougal and Rene Degville. TRACK 2: Henry Little; speaks about Rene D'Egville, the Union Bank operations, railway construction and mining, the Hazelton area, Blackjack MacDonald, Hazelton hospital and staff, Bulkley Valley settlement, Kispiox, prospector -- Charlie Eck (1910), Hazelton from 1910-20 and the water system.

Irving Bell interview

CALL NUMBER: T3913:0001 RECORDED: Victoria (B.C.), 1980-11-18 / 1980-11-21 SUMMARY: TRACK 1: Irving Bell discusses: his background -- birth and early history of parents; father's antique business; early schooling and living places; adventurous as a boy; taking the steamer to Skeena country. Describes scene from ship. Work as busy boy at Tern City Club (?). More about the journey on the boat. Speaks of Ole Hansen. Talks of industry in Skeena area. Three Hazeltons. TRACK 2: Irving Bell: 1936 flood at Hazelton; first impressions; first job at old H.B.C. store; Mrs. Newaski's boarding house. Describes H.B.C. store. Anderson bought building. Alan Benson and shoes anecdote. Discusses: Native people -- story of Simon Gunanoot; three main stores -- Dick Sargeant; problems of Indian agents; domination of Christian churches; settlers in area; parties; line cabins.

CALL NUMBER: T3913:0002 SUPPLIED TITLE OF TAPE(S): Missionaries in B.C. : Irving Wells Bell RECORDED: Victoria (B.C.), 1980-11-18 / 1980-11-21 SUMMARY: TRACK 1: Irving Bell discusses: story of linesman savings; how they spent money; how isolation affected them; reason for being fired from job. Mrs. Cox -- her history, Indians, weather prophet. Job at Kitwanga. Meeting with Natives -- boxing. Missionary at Kitwanga. His background and his wife's background. Missionary's priest taught children to sing. TRACK 2: Speaks of Coxes -- visiting him at Kitwanga, more on Coxes. Went into history -- followed what Natives wanted. Learnt Native language. Missionaries had done nothing in teaching. Kept curriculum. Few Natives spoke English; they were not interested in their children's education. No doctor. School inspector visit. Fixing up of totem poles. Mention of the United school. Kitsegukla. Bud left Kitwanga. Mention of school teachers. George Berns, Love family, school teacher at Love ranch. Mentions settlers in Kispiox. Mentions happenings in Kispiox and the Valley of Morn. Promises to England. George Berns gets a wife. How gold strikes originate with the Natives. Paints bridge. Water business. Changed boarding to room over store Myers and Smith. Old days in Kerrisdale: boarding house. Midwifery in kitchen. Worked on several jobs: range assistant. Learned about fur buying. Begins story of Manson Creek. Talks of dive boats. Use of canoes in floods. Use of river. Problem of ice.

CALL NUMBER: T3913:0003 SUPPLIED TITLE OF TAPE(S): Missionaries in B.C. : Irving Wells Bell RECORDED: Victoria (B.C.), 1980-11-18 / 1980-11-21 SUMMARY: TRACK 1: Irving Bell discusses: river; road conditions- frost boils; hotels; Bud Dawson and Omineca Hotel. Loss of beer parlour to fire. Fire protection -- bucket brigade. Feud between Pete Cowigan and Bud Dawson. Mentions inhabitants. Talks about a white man who lived on a Native reserve. Throwing of furniture on to road. Three old-timers in front of hotel. Mentions settlers. Chinese cafes. Describes Chinese. No apparent racism. Hunting incident -- shoots loon. Scotty McCrae -- hotel owner. Other pioneers. Native graves spoiled. Natives did not accept Christianity. Most Natives could not speak English. TRACK 2: Irving Bell: Gitniquluk (?) village people; central heating; all influence by religion -- open to anything that provided enjoyment; Manson Creek journey; Luke Fauler (weather prophet); journey to Babine (Fort Babine); problem with toboggan; difficulties of journey; built fire on logs but dark anyways; old Native trades at Fort (Beas Lake Charlie?). Set out for Takla Lake. Native gives birth on trail. Crossing of Takla Lake. Working with Luke to establish a claim. McConkells' farm. Arrived at Billy Steale cabin. Billy Steale anecdote. Describes cabin. Blankets in bed. Went to claim.

CALL NUMBER: T3913:0004 SUPPLIED TITLE OF TAPE(S): Missionaries in B.C. : Irving Wells Bell RECORDED: Victoria (B.C.), 1980-11-18 / 1980-11-21 SUMMARY: TRACK 1: Irving Bell discusses: doing some panning; working 'gentleman's agreement' claim; working for job with McConkells because of lack of food; getting job going for equipment; 'grizzly' encounters; working for McConkells for three weeks. Sent for provisions from Fort St. James. Skookum Davies. Got some gold. Returned via Vanderhoof because a road was now in area. Cabin on Bumblebee Creek "smallest in the world". Bear walks. Giles' growth story. Camped until road was done. Road the rails back to Hazelton. Met railroaders -- the 'system'. Mentions the Depression. Getting married. (End of interview)

[Japan and Skeena]

Amateur film. Japan: sea voyage, shore scenery, other ships (destroyers), gardens and temples, ship leaving harbour. Miscellaneous: big house and dogs (Victoria?); bridge of ship; sports fishing; punting. Skeena footage: Skeena River; fishing; Indian villages and totem poles; Premier Hotel; sailors; dignitary receiving a gun salute and being driven in a Rolls Royce to a house.

Jeffrey Johnson interview

SUPPLIED TITLE OF TAPE(S): Chief Jeffery Johnson : the Skeena River Indians (Gitksan) RECORDED: [location unknown], 1963-04-02 SUMMARY: TRACK 1: Chief Jeffrey H. Johnson discusses the Skeena River and his people. He speaks about the meaning of K'san (Skeena), the smallpox epidemic, pre-contact, the introduction of potatoes, pre-contac;t trapping, the arrival of the Hudson's Bay, churches and missionaries, Indian workers at the canneries, Indian fishermen, Indian women knitting the fishing nets and working in the canneries, fishing ;methods and pay, the cannery companies, introduction of the sternwheelers, competition on the Skeena, the wreck of the "Mount Royal" and the freight canoe crews and navigation. TRACK 2: Chief Johnson; continues speaking about the freight canoes, the diet of the crew, diet pre-contact, canoe travel pre-contact, Indian songs for the freight canoes and origins of the songs. Chief Johnson explains and; sings two songs used by the freighting crews, legends of the origin of the Skeena River, a war between the Haida and the people of Kitwanga, and a story about Kitselas Canyon.

Kitselas : [miscellaneous recordings II]

CALL NUMBER: T4255:0122 SUPPLIED TITLE OF TAPE(S): Kitselas : story of Quams house post [and?] the plastic copy SUMMARY: [No content information available.] Probably a component used in the production of Imbert Orchard's radio documentary "Kitselas".

CALL NUMBER: T4255:0123 SUPPLIED TITLE OF TAPE(S): Kitselas : the bird and its story SUMMARY: [No content information available.] Probably a component used in the production of Imbert Orchard's radio documentary "Kitselas".

Living memory : Chief Gail's calipeen

SUMMARY: "Chief Gail's Calipeen" is the seventh episode in the series. Sperry Cline recalls some aspect of Indian life in the Skeena Country, including stories about telepathic powers and bear hunting, as well as Chief Abraham Gail of the village of Kispiox and his "calipeen" (flintlock rifle).

Living memory : Early days in Hazelton, part 1

SUMMARY: "Early Days in Hazelton, part 1", #14 in the series, consists of pioneer recollections of the birth and early days of Hazelton. This discussion continues in program #15; see T3262:0001 (description AAAB3574).

Living memory : Growing up on the Skeena

SUMMARY: In "Growing Up on the Skeena", #2 in the series, pioneer Walter Wicks talks ab;out what it was like to grow up at a cannery at the mouth of the Skeena early in the 20th century.

Living memory : Isaac and the friendship party

SUMMARY: "Isaac and the Friendship Party" is the fourth episode in the series. Constance Cox tells a story about Isaac, a Carrier Indian from Babine, who gave a party for his friends and got hauled into court as a consequence.

Living memory : Kitselas Canyon

SUMMARY: "Kitselas Canyon", #8 in the series, consists of three stories set at Kitselas Canyon on the Skeena River. Veroca Godfrey remembers a boating excursion at Kitselas. Annie Moberly recalls the wreck of the steamboat "Mount Royal" in 1907. Wiggs O'Neill tells about an Indian woman arrested for selling liquor during the days of railway construction.

Living memory : Minskinisht

SUMMARY:"Minskinisht", #10 in the series, is the story of the founding and early days of the Indian mission at Minskinisht on the Skeena -- now known as Cedarvale. The story is continued from program #9; see T3256:0001 (description AAAB3568).

Living memory : Robert Tomlinson

SUMMARY: "Robert Tomlinson", #9 in the series, is the story of Robert Tomlinson, who founded the Indian mission of Minskinisht. The story continues in program #10; see T3257:0001 (description AAAB3569).

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