Series MS-3374 - Indigenous studio portraits of Mrs. R. Maynard’s Photographic Gallery

Portrait (mid-length) of an unidentified Indigenous individual seated and holding a container of ... Portrait (mid-length) of an unidentified Indigenous individual seated taken at a photographic stu... Portrait (full-length) of an unidentified Indigenous individual seated with cloth bags taken at a... Portrait (full-length) of an unidentified Indigenous individual, hair wrapped in a scarf, seated ... Portrait (full-length) of an unidentified Indigenous individual, hair wrapped in a scarf, standin... Portrait (full-length) of two unidentified Indigenous individuals (seated and standing) taken at ... Portrait (full-length) of two unidentified Indigenous individuals (two adults) standing taken at ... Portrait (full-length) of an unidentified Indigenous individual (older adult) seated taken at an ... Portrait (full-length) of two unidentified Indigenous individuals seated taken at a photographic ... Portrait (full-length) of an unidentified Indigenous individual seated taken at an unknown photog... Portrait (mid-length) of two unidentified Indigenous individuals seated taken at a photographic s... Portrait (full-length) of an unidentified Indigenous individual seated taken at a photographic st... Portrait (mid-length) of an unidentified Indigenous individual seated taken at a photographic stu... Portrait (full-length) of an unidentified Indigenous individual seated with baskets and crabs tak... Portrait (full-length) of an unidentified Indigenous baby wrapped in a cradleboard taken at a pho... Portrait (full-length) of an unidentified Indigenous individual seated taken at a photographic st... Studio portrait (full-length) of two unidentified Indigenous individuals seated with a basket and... Portrait (full-length) of an unidentified Indigenous baby wrapped in a cradleboard taken at a pho... Studio portrait (mid-length, side profile) featuring an unidentified Indigenous individual taken ... Studio portrait featuring of a group of six unidentified Indigenous individuals seated and standi... Studio portrait (mid-length) featuring an unidentified Indigenous individual taken at a photograp... Studio portrait (mid-length, side profile) featuring an unidentified Indigenous individual taken ... Studio portrait (mid-length) of an unidentified Indigenous individual seated taken at a photograp... Studio portrait (mid-length) of an unidentified Indigenous individual seated  taken at a photogra... Studio portrait (mid-length) of an unidentified Indigenous individual seated  taken at a photogra... Studio portrait (mid-length) of an unidentified Indigenous individual seated  taken at a photogra... Studio portrait (side profile, mid-length) of an unidentified Indigenous individual seated taken ... Studio portrait (mid-length) of an unidentified Indigenous individual seated taken at a photograp... Studio portrait (mid-length) of an unidentified Indigenous individual taken at a photographic stu... Studio portrait (mid-length) of an unidentified Indigenous individual taken at a photographic stu...
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Title and statement of responsibility area

Title proper

Indigenous studio portraits of Mrs. R. Maynard’s Photographic Gallery

General material designation

  • graphic material

Parallel title

Other title information

Title statements of responsibility

Title notes

  • Source of title proper: Title based on the contents of the series.
  • Attributions and conjectures: The photographs are attributed to Hannah Maynard.
  • Attributions and conjectures: The photographs are attributed to Frederick Dally.
  • Attributions and conjectures: The photographs are attributed to Carlo Gentile.
  • Attributions and conjectures: The photographs are attributed to an unidentified photographer.

Level of description

Series

Reference code

MS-3374

Edition area

Edition statement

Edition statement of responsibility

Class of material specific details area

Statement of scale (cartographic)

Statement of projection (cartographic)

Statement of coordinates (cartographic)

Statement of scale (architectural)

Issuing jurisdiction and denomination (philatelic)

Dates of creation area

Date(s)

  • [ca.1862-1890; predominant 1862-1872] (Creation)

Physical description area

Physical description

67 photographs

Publisher's series area

Title proper of publisher's series

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Other title information of publisher's series

Statement of responsibility relating to publisher's series

Numbering within publisher's series

Note on publisher's series

Archival description area

Name of creator

(1840-1914)

Biographical history

Frederick Dally was born in Wellingborough, Northamptonshire, England in 1840. He arrived in Victoria, British Columbia, in 1862, on the China Clipper “Cyclone.” In March 1864, Dally leased a store at the corner of Fort and Government streets, and in 1866 he opened a photographic studio in Victoria. Between 1865 and 1870, he took extensive photographs around Vancouver Island and in the Cariboo District.

In 1866 Dally accompanied Governor A.E. Kennedy on H.M.S. Scout for a tour of Vancouver Island and Nootka Sound with his primary purpose being to visit and photograph First Nations communities.

In 1867, Dally visited the Cariboo goldfields in the central interior of British Columbia, and opened for business in Barkerville. He remained here for one month before returning to Victoria after a brief stay in Quesnelmouth. He returned to the Cariboo and again set up shop in Barkerville the following summer. His studio was in operation for only two weeks before it was destroyed by the Barkerville fire on September 16, 1868. During his stays in the Cariboo, Dally photographed mines, towns, and scenery. By December of the same year, Dally had returned to Victoria and was again operating his studio on Fort Street.

In 1870, Dally’s business was taken over by the Green Brothers, who were meant to purchase Dally’s negatives and photography equipment. Two years later, these items went for sale at auction and many of Dally’s negatives were purchased by Richard and Hannah Maynard. Many of Dally’s photographs were published for sale under the Maynard name.

In October of 1870, Frederick Dally travelled to Philadelphia where he enrolled in a dentistry program. He graduated in 1872, at which point he returned to England to practice dentistry.

Frederick Dally died in 1914.

Name of creator

Biographical history

Name of creator

(1834-1918)

Biographical history

Hannah Hatherly Maynard (1834-1918) was a well-known photographer, photographic artist and business owner originally from Cornwall, England and based in Victoria, British Columbia. She ran a successful commercial studio photography business, Mrs. R. Maynard’s Photographic Gallery (1862? – 1912) in Victoria on Vancouver Island that was in operation for 50 years.

Hannah married Richard Maynard in 1852 in England and they immigrated to Bowmanville, Ontario. While in Ontario she studied photography, likely with R & H O’Hara of Bowmanville, Photographers, Booksellers, Insurance Agents, Etc. In 1862, Hannah, Richard and their family moved to the Colony of Vancouver Island on the Sierra Nevada. It is believed she opened Mrs. R. Maynard’s Photographic Gallery that same year.

As a photographer she was primarily known for her portrait photography. Throughout her career she created a documentary record of the changing landscape of Victoria and its population as it grew from a small fort settlement to an urban centre. As a portrait photographer, she created likenesses of early inhabitants among them gold miners and sailors. When the studio opened, Fort Victoria had been established by the Hudson’s Bay Company twenty year’s prior, and the Colony of Vancouver Island was barely over a decade years old. In addition, the medium of photography was in its early infancy and only several years since gold was found on the Fraser River on the mainland. During the early 1860s and 1870s, Mrs. R. Maynard’s Photographic Gallery was one of the most prolific creators of carte de visites of First Nations subjects which were popular in and around Victoria during that time, which disseminated a certain depiction of First Nations and Indigenous people to public consumers. Later on in 1897, Mrs. Maynard employed her skills in portraiture in her role as the official photographer for city police forces in Victoria for several years. Upon her retirement, Hannah is quoted in the Victoria Daily Colonist as saying “I think I can say with every confidence that we photographed everyone in the town at one time or another.”

In addition to her portrait photography, Mrs. Maynard’s portfolio of work also included other styles of photography. During the 1870s and 1880s, Hannah and Richard took several working trips together where they both practiced photography in the field. This included trips to Vancouver Island, Haida Gwaii (then referred to as the Queen Charlotte Islands) and to Banff, Alberta. In the early 1900s, Hannah Maynard supplied ethnographic documentary photographs of Indigenous people of B.C.'s Northwest Coast to the Peabody Museum of Archaeology and Ethnology at Harvard in the United States.

Mrs. R. Maynard was an artist, as well as a photographer. She was known for producing experimental works that involved photographic techniques such as double and multiple exposures, photo-sculptures, as well as composite and cut-and-paste montage imagery. The "Gems of British Columbia" series features portrait montages of selected children, largely Anglo-European subjects as well as a number of clients from African American and Chinese pioneer families, photographed throughout the year. These were sent as New Year's greeting cards to clients from 1881 until about 1895. In the 1880s, these composite photographs, which sometimes incorporated photo sculptures (also known as “Living Sculptures”) were published in the trade publication St. Louis Photographer (also known as St. Louis and Canadian Photographer). She also used landscape views as well as studio portraits as source material for composite works, such as the piece “80 Views on the Frazer River” featuring multiple landscape views identified as the Fraser River, or the blended “documentary” image of a field photograph depicting a view of community village scene and a studio portrait of an Indigenous women. She is also more commonly known for unique autobiographical works, tableaux vivants which employ double and multiple exposure techniques along with the techniques of photo-sculpture, and feature Hannah and other members of the Maynard family.

Over the course of her career, Mrs. R. Maynard received many acknowledgements and praise in Canada and the United States. Early in her career, the Seattle Weekly Pacific Tribune described her as a "leading photographer of Victoria” in 1878. In 1888, The New West of Winnipeg noted: “…her photographic work cannot be excelled for brilliancy of expression and harmony of effect…she is recognized as one of the foremost representatives of the profession in the country.”

During the course of her career, the personal history of Hannah Maynard and her family are closely linked, to both her photographic work and that of her studio. Her children and family are featured in many of her studio portraits, as well as in experimental works. Photographic work created by Hannah and her husband Richard have been attributed to each other in several ways and means. In 1890, Richard Maynard won first prize in the professional class for the Victoria landscape view, "The Arm" by West Shore magazine in October of 1890. This image was later also credited to Hannah Maynard in the publication the St. Louis & Canadian Photographer in November that same year.

Around 1910, Hannah Maynard appears to have disposed of her camera equipment to a photographer identified as “a Chinese photographer named Peter on Government Street”. On September 29, 1912, the Victoria Daily Colonist announced Hannah Maynard’s retirement at the age of 78 and the closure of the studio. The Mrs. R. Maynard’s Photographic Gallery appears to have never reopened. She died at age 84 in 1918 and is buried in Ross Bay Cemetery, Victoria, British Columbia. Her son Albert H. Maynard executed her will.

Custodial history

Found in BC Archives in 2008. Records in this series appears to have been part of a large purchase of Maynard glass plate negatives by the Provincial Government and the Provincial Library and Archives from Albert H. Maynard in the early 1930s. Albert H. Maynard is the son of photographers Hannah and Richard Maynard of Mrs. R. Maynard’s Photographic Gallery.

Scope and content

This series consists of 67 nineteenth century photographs of First Nations and Indigenous individuals and groups taken between the early 1860s and the late 1880s to early 1890s. The bulk of the photographs are attributed to English photographers Frederick Dally (1838-1914) and Hannah Maynard (1834-1918) of Mrs. R. Maynard’s Photographic Gallery (1862?-1912) who acquired the Dally negatives at some point after his photographic business closed in 1870. A small number of works are attributed to Italian photographer Carlo (Charles) Gentile (1835-1893). The earliest images are attributed to F. Dally and C. Gentile taken in the early 1860s. The bulk of the photographs were produced by Maynard, Dally and Gentile for the purposes of creating and marketing commercial photographic products popular during the 1860s and 1870s in Victoria, and to a lesser extent for the purpose of fulfilling individual photographic orders of studio clientele in the late 1880s or 1890s. The studio portraits document a depiction of First Nations and Indigenous people and identities from the perspective of European photographers in Fort Victoria in the Colony of Vancouver Island (now the city of Victoria in the province of British Columbia) during the pre- and post-confederation era. Photographs in this series include popular Dally portraits that appear in print format in other F. Dally photographic albums.

During the 1860s and 1870s, the Maynard Studio was also one of the most prolific creators of cartes de visite of First Nations and Indigenous people along with F. Dally and Charles (Carlo) Gentile, popular in and around Victoria during the early 1860s and 1870s. During the 1860s, Frederick Dally advertised the availability of these products within his imprint on the back of card mounted print photographs stating: “...A large and highly interesting collection of Photographic Views of British Columbia and Vancouver Island may be had at the Gallery. Also, Cartes de Visite of the various Indian Tribes in great variety.” Commercial cartes de visite were marketed and sold more frequently to non-Indigenous tourist audiences. After 1870, the glass plate negatives and photographic works of Frederick Dally were purchased and marketed by the Maynards and Mrs. R. Maynard’s Photographic Gallery after the English photographer went out of business.

Along with conventional portraits for Maynard Studio clients produced in these early years of the studio, cartes de visite of First Nations and Indigenous people produced by Hannah Maynard and the Maynard Studio were created using studio portraits depicting sitters often against a studio backdrop (e.g. plain or scenic), posed and arranged (e.g. side profile, mid or full length, forward facing), sometimes with props (e.g. baskets, carvings), crouched, seated or standing, in groups or individually. In the years that followed, these studio portraits were re-marketed to the collecting public in the form of a composite or altered studio portrait or blended “documentary” image. Composite portraits removed Indigenous sitters and clients from their original context of the photography studio and blended them with field photographs and landscape views produced on other Maynard photographic tours around British Columbia.

Other photographers of the Maynard Studio were also creating and producing portraits of First Nations and Indigenous people in the early 1870s. Photographer Richard Maynard, husband of Hannah Maynard, created field portraits in a land-based studio produced during a photographic tour of Vancouver Island in 1873. Part of a tour with government officials travelling and inspecting Indigenous settlements on the Northeast Coast of Vancouver Island and adjacent sites on the mainland, the series of portraits of individuals and groups created during this visit were later marketed and sold as photographic commodities (cartes de visite) by Mrs. R. Maynard bearing imprints from the second Maynard Studio. Earlier, Frederick Dally had participated in a tour of inspection of Indigenous communities around Vancouver Island with the colonial administration on the H.M.S. Scout 1866 (summer).

After the closure of Mrs. R. Maynard’s Photographic Gallery, Maynard ‘s son Albert H. Maynard facilitated the distribution of his parent’s photographic work to educational institutions such as those on the west coast of Canada and United States. Some of the work distributed and sold consisted of ethnographic photographs documenting British Columbia’s First Nation communities, including studio portraits. In the early 1930s, an acquisition request for photographic slides to A. H. Maynard at a Yates Street address in Victoria from the University of California, 1930 requests for “#8 Haida woman with button labret and pierced septum. Taken in Victoria” and “#15 Kitta Canim of Clayoquot Sound. Nootka or Salish.”

This series consist of 67 collodion and gelatin dry cartes de visite sized glass plate negatives. There is a single stereograph sized portrait (gelatin dry negative). Virtually no negatives contain image captions or photographers name, signature or imprint. There does not appear to be dates and or photograph numbers for the original negatives identified on plates or in the emulsion of the negative. There is only one photograph that contains a caption noted on the negative plate and provides information on the identity of an individual in the portrait (see “Old Clah” on J-04841).

Photographs consist of manipulated and unmanipulated images. Of the manipulated images, many of the studio portraits have had visual information intentionally removed. The typical types of information removed include the removal or obscuring of the studio backdrop to facilitate the creation of a fabricated composite image or the illusion of a plain background. In many instances, the space around the area behind the sitter has been manipulated (e.g. painted overtop on the negative plate).

There are several studios represented in this series: studio(s) attributed to the photographic studio(s) of Frederick Dally, studio(s) attributed to Carlo Gentile and studio(s) attributed to Mrs. R. Maynard's Photographic Gallery. Studio accessories include plain or painted scenic backdrops, flooring (such as floor tiling, carpets or woven mats -rare). Of the floor titling, the same titling appears in photographic negatives attributed to photographers Carlo Gentile and Mrs. R. Maynard (see J-04844, J-03643, J-04864, J-04858, J-04860 and J-04847, J-04863 and J-04865). Regarding scenic studio backdrops, the bulk of the images do not contain them. However, a number of portraits use a studio backdrop depicting a false window and balcony scene (e.g. J-04865, J-03639), which has can be seen used in conventional studio portraits attributed to Mrs. R. Maynard in her portfolio of studio portraits of non-Indigenous sitters (e.g. HP018346). The presence of photographic devices (e.g. such as lighting equipment - tent) or other photographic apparatus (e.g. a standing head rest) are visible in some portraits (e.g. see J-04841, J-04844, J-04849). Finally, common type of props used in many of the portraits featured in this series include: woven baskets (small and large weave) or pails with some containing potatoes, clams, crabs or other food items; a container of berries; bundles of wood; cloth bags and blankets; Hudson’s Bay Company blankets. A small number of portraits include props used in conventional studio portraits of non-Indigenous sitters such as false bannisters used in the studio of Carlo Gentile (e.g. J-03640) or chairs (e.g. J-04864, J-03643, J-04859, J-03658). There are a small number of portraits that reflect a wider view of a photographic studio. For those attributed to a studio of Dally, see J-04827. For those attributed to a studio of Gentile, see J-03635. For those attributed to a studio of Mrs. R. Maynard, see J-04841 and J-04854. There are also a number of studio portraits taken by an unattributed photographer and an unattributed photographic studio.

First Nations and Indigenous sitters and/or studio clients featured in Dally portraits in this series, are identified in captions for the same but often cropped versions of many of these photographs in other photographic formats such as albums or posters. Related 19th or early 20th century Dally albums identify individuals and groups as having cultural, political, linguistic or geographical affiliations with the following descriptors: “Sooke,” “Barclay Sound,” “Fort Rupert,” “Hydah,” “Quamichan,” “Cowichan,” “Ohiat” [Huu-ay-aht] and “Sheeshat” [Tse-shaht].

A number of sitters are represented in individual and group studio photographs. Representatives from Indigenous governments and communities on Vancouver Island and British Columbia including the Tsimshian Chief known as Arthur Wellington Clah (see J-04841), as well as Chief Sitakeenum/Cedarkanim (also known or been identified as Seta-Kanim/Seta-Canim/Seta-ka-nim/Setta (Cedar) Canim/Sitakanim) of the Tla—o-qui-aht [Clayoquot] First Nation of the Nuu-chah-nulth Nation (see J-04860, J-04864, J-04858).

Many of the portraits feature clients or sitters who may have been day labourers in Fort Victoria, depicted with actual or props of baskets of items to sell, such as potatoes (see J-03636), clams, berries (see J-04843, J-04857), crabs (J-03647), or services potentially such as laundry (see J-04863, J-04847, J-04862).There are several sitters in uniform (see J-04842, J-04856), including a naval uniform (see J-03657) and two depict individuals with both a naval uniform and a presentation staff (see J-03635, J-04854). Other occupational like portraits appear to reflect Christian religious clergy (see J-04856).

Youth are featured in individual (see J-03637, J-03640) and group photographs (J-03638, J-04860, J-04853, J-03643, J-04844, J-04827). There are two portraits of babies photographed wrapped in cradleboards (see J-03652, J-03658) and a single portrait reflecting mother and child depiction (J-03655). Older adults are represented less commonly, but are included in this series as individual (see J-03645, J-03654, J-04849, J-04848, J-04831) and group portraits (see J-04865, J-03643, J-04866). Some sitters (youth, adults) wear adornments or jewelry such as earrings, septum rings or nose labret, bracelets, necklaces, necklaces with chains or with pendants (see J-04833, J-04826, J-04836, J-03640, J-04863, J-04847, J-04862, J-03647, J-04865, J-03656). Many sitter wear short or mid-length hair and some wear their hair long (loose, held back with headbands, braided or under hats or other head wear) (see J-04866, J-03656, J-04843, J-03639, J-03641, J-03657, J-04844, J-04828, J-04832).

Portrait styles reflected in this series include head shots, front profile, side profiles, as well as mid and full-length likenesses that employ a variety of studio props. Only a single portrait appears to depict a smile expression (J-03636).

Notes area

Physical condition

Some of the photographs in this series are damaged. There are broken or chipped negatives, negatives with cracking emulsion and negatives with partial missing emulsion. In many cases, some visual information in those items is not present or has been intentionally removed (e.g. in areas depicting the studio background or flooring).

Immediate source of acquisition

Arrangement

Language of material

Script of material

Location of originals

Availability of other formats

Restrictions on access

The photographs in this series are glass plate negatives. Researchers should consult the online reference image prior to consulting the original. Please contact the BC Archives for details.

Terms governing use, reproduction, and publication

Items are in the public domain. Please contact the BC Archives to determine the use, reproduction, and publication status of collection materials.

Finding aids

Associated materials

Associated Materials
For personal accounts from Indigenous clients of the Maynard Studio, such as textual records in the form of handwritten diaries of Tsimshian Chief Arthur Wellington Clah, access is available through the Wellcome Institute for the Hist. of Medicine, London, England (see, WMS Amer. 140 (1-72) or on microfilm at NA, MG 40, F11). Microfilm copies are available at Library and Archives Canada (see MG 40/F 11 and reels: A-1706 to A-1709 and A-1711 to A-1714).

For more information about Tse-shaht (People) Whaling people of the southern region of Vancouver Island of Nuu-chah-nulth First Nations, see C’išaaʔatḥ/Tseshaht First Nation.

For accounts of Chief Sitakeenum/Cedarkanim, the James G. Swan diaries and letters document Chief Sitakeenum/Cedarkanim and his family in the 1860s to the 1890s can be found at the Seattle Historical Society Library (letters) and the University of Washington Libraries, Seattle (diaries).

Photographic prints and research documentation regarding Maynard, Dally or Gentile’s studio portraits of Indigenous sitters and/or clients featured in this series is available at the Royal British Columbia Museum’s Indigenous Collections and Repatriation department.

Indigenous audio-visual photographic collections (formerly in the Department of Anthropology), part of the Royal British Columbia Museum Indigenous Collections and Repatriation department holds photographic prints (including cartes de visite, postcards, as well as black and white recent prints) of some of these Maynard attributed studio portraits featured in this series. Some of these materials were transferred from the BC Archives. In some cases, there are several versions of a studio portrait which illustrate the editing and production process for contrived (faked or fabricated) photographs of Indigenous sitters and/or studio clients (see PN15166/J-03651). Card mounted prints can contain photographer’s imprints, image descriptions or annotations sometimes containing general information about the photographer, sitter/subject of the portrait (see PN 6126/J-04849 and PN 6127) or owner/collector of the photographic print (see PN 6187/ J-04857). There are prints of studio portraits, as well as composite works (fabricated images featuring studio portraits and field photographs). For examples, see PN 5418, PN 5310, PN 5311-A (composite related to J-04863), PN 5311-B, PN 2979, PN 5321, PN 5321-B, PN2792 (composite related to J-04843), PN 9731, PN 5418-B, PN 5321-B (related to PN 5321-A) and PN-5418-B (related to J-03655). For examples of composites that were produced into colour postcards in later years, see PN5901 (related to J-03647) and PN 5321.

Research documentation in the Royal British Columbia Museum Indigenous Collections and Repatriation department includes illustrated photographic reference cards containing copies of photographs found in Indigenous audio-visual photographic collections at the Royal BC Museum, and BC Archives. Reference cards include field photographs and studio portraits to a lesser extent. They do not contain the verso of card mounted photographs found in the Indigenous audio-visual photographic collections.

There are also ethno historic photo catalogues that provide item level information (i.e. source of photographs such as which collection, museum or archives) relating to photographic items in Indigenous audio-visual photographic collections. Information in ethno historic photo catalogues can provide a summary of information about a photograph. Entries here occasionally repeat information (usually caption information) found in Newcombe photograph registers and in the original PN print files, as well as containing other research notes (such as related photographs).

Both illustrated photographic reference cards and ethno historic photo catalogues provide links (alpha-numeric codes) used in original Newcombe photograph registers, early catalog/descriptive records for the museum’s photographic collections. These registers are identified as “Newcombe Register 1 (…Register No.1 –Negative and Lantern Slides (E, E.C., C. Gg, G1, H, V, B, X, S.L.)” and “Newcombe Register 2 (…Register No.2 –Negative and Lantern Slides (C, M.E, N.H, Is., J, L, M, P, R, S, V-E, RC, HI.S).”

Newcombe photograph registers appear to reflect the classification system used by Charles Frederick Newcombe for negatives and lantern slides. Register information includes alpha-numeric codes for negatives, image captions, photographer names, owner/collector of the photographic print, occasionally dates, cross references to alpha-numeric codes for lantern slides, along with other information. In image captions, remarks sometimes include information on the sitter/subject of the portrait. Both registers contain entries for lantern slides. “Newcombe Register 1” contains entries #1 to 440 and “Newcombe Register 2” contains entries #433 to 565 (starting on pg. 137). Cataloguing is attributed to C.F. and W.A. Newcombe, along with other individuals responsible for early museum photographic collection cataloging. For examples, see the entry for PN-5311-B (regarding images J-04863 in this series) in the ethno historic photo catalogue, which includes the alpha-numeric codes “M155” and lantern slide code “x74.” See also the corresponding entries for “M155” and “x74” in “Newcombe Register 2” and “Newcombe Register 1” respectively. M-E numbers refer to “Maynard Ethnology Negatives” and “x” refers to “Lantern Slides – Negatives not in C.F.N’s [C.F. Newcombe] Possession.”

In the Royal BC Museum's Indigenous Collections and Repatriation department’s original photograph print materials (i.e. PN print cards) and research collections (i.e. illustrated photographic reference cards and ethno historic photo catalogues), the authors of descriptive information (image captions, image descriptions or annotations) are from a variety of sources including creators, collectors and current and past Royal BC Museum staff. Some terminology found in here (i.e. image captions) reflect terms used in Chinook jargon (e.g. "Ty-ee" and "Si'-wash"). It appears terms have been reproduced from associated album captions in PR-1380 in the BC Archives visual records collections or in cataloguing information found in Newcombe photograph registers located in the Royal BC Museum's Indigenous Collections and Repatriation department.

Please contact the Indigenous Collections and Repatriation department to determine the access status of these records.

Indigenous studio portraits of Mrs. R. Maynard’s Photographic Gallery can also be found at the University of Washington University Libraries’ Special Collections (digital access through Digital Collections or American Indians of the Pacific Northwest Images), and the American Museum of Natural History Research Library (digital access through Digital Special Collections).

Related Materials
For comparable client records that may relate to First Nations and Indigenous customers of the Maynard Studio, see the handwritten studio register created during the last twenty years of operation (MS-3325 described as Studio register of Mrs. R. Maynard's Photographic Gallery, 1891 – 1899). Information primarily consists of documentation relating to portrait orders over an eight year period. Client information contained within register entries can include names, place of residence, family relationships, and occasionally identifiers for race or ethnicity for clients not perceived as Anglo-European, as well as date of order, number of negative, size and style of portrait (the bulk of which are cartes de visite), quantity, price paid, specific customization instructions, as well as shipping information. For an example, see the entry for "Chief Sheppard and family."

For studio portraits featuring First Nation and Indigenous sitters and/or clients created by Frederick Dally and associated photographic albums, see PR-1380 described as the Frederick Dally fonds. This fonds includes several albums featuring cropped photographic prints of F. Dally studio portraits featured in this series. There is general information that may identify the cultural, political, linguistic or geographical affiliations of some of the individuals and groups depicted in portraits (i.e. “Sooke,” “Barclay Sound,” “Fort Rupert,” “Hydah,” “Quamichan,” “Cowichan,” “Ohiat” and “Sheeshat”). Other information may include gender or political status. Captions are attributed to Frederick Dally. In a small number of cases, individual names appear to be documented. Some terminology found in image captions in photographic albums reflect terms used in Chinook jargon (e.g. "Ty-ee," "Si'-wash" and "Kloochman"). There is also information on collectors and consumers of these photographs, including evidence of arrangement and design of prints in albums or posters (i.e. displayed as single or double page spreads of cropped portraits with general descriptions).

See MS-3100, album 5, page 1, 16 and 34 described as MS-3100.5 - Photographic Views of British Columbia 1867 - 1870. [Dally Album Number 5]; album 4 (page 96 and 97) described as MS-3100.4 - Photographic Views of British Columbia 1867 - 1868. [Dally Album Number 4] and album 9, pg 40 described as MS-3100.9 [Thomas Lowe Album] [Dally Album Number 9]

MS-1077 in the Newcombe family fonds (PR-0356) contains copies of correspondence and associated photographic lists relating to the sales and distribution of Maynard photographic works with educational institutions such as those on the west coast of Canada and United States by Albert H. Maynard, including the University of California dated 1930 (see reel A01755 or box 20, file 7 described as “A.H. Maynard. Lists and Photo Orders”).

Related materials

Accruals

General note

Archives code(s): MS-3374

General note

Archives code(s): J-04840; J-04839; J-04838; J-04837; J-04836; J-04835; J-04834; J-04833; J-04832; J-04831; J-04830; J-04829; J-04828; J-04827; J-04826;
J-04844, J-04858, J-04860, J-04864
J-03648; J-03635; J-03646; J-03640; J-03636; J-03637; J-03639; J-03640; J-03641; J-03643; J-03644; J-03645; J-03647; J-03649; J-03650; J-03651; J-03654; J-03655; J-03656; J-03638; J-03652; J-03657; J-03658.

General note

Archives code(s): [HP016460], [HP34380], HP094549, HP019226, HP083073, HP094471, HP094478, HP094557, HP094560, HP094561, HP094563, HP094564, HP094565, HP094566, HP094567, HP094568, HP094569, HP094570, HP094488, HP094571, HP094572, HP094573, HP094574, HP094575, HP094577, HP094578, HP094579, HP094580, HP094582, HP094583, HP094584,
HP094586, HP094587, HP094588, HP083071, HP094477, HP094589, HP094590, HP094591, HP094592, HP094593, HP094594, HP094595, HP094496, HP094483, HP094476.
Note: Not all items in this series have been identified previously with HP numbers. Some photographs have been assigned identifiers for the first time in 2019.

General note

Accession number(s): Found in BC Archives in 2008, later reaccessioned as 95-7328-3.

General note

Locations: 000343-1018, 000343-1019, 000343-1020, 000343-1021, 000343-1022, 000343-1023.

General note

Many of the portraits in this series represent photographic commodities and tourist products, and some should be considered contrived images and not authentic documents depicting First Nations and Indigenous lives. Contrived photography is a term used to mean faked or fabricated photography. Contrived photographs can consist of: mocked or staged scenes; present non-Indigenous impersonators as Indigenous individuals; convey Euro-American perceptions of Indigenous people; transmit an ideological or political argument. There is a history of the use of contrived images in British Columbia to support colonization of Indigenous people.
The specific use of selected props, poses and backgrounds in contrived images aid in the fabricated depiction of First Nations and Indigenous life from a non-Indigenous lens/European lens.

General note

In addition to studio portraits, Hannah Maynard of Mrs. R. Maynard’s Photographic Gallery also marketed and sold field photographs as cartes de visite, originally created outside the Maynard Studio. One example of this practice is in the marketing of portraits photographed by Richard Maynard during one of his photographic tours of Vancouver Island. Photographs taken by Richard, a series of individual and group portraits of First Nations and Indigenous sitters in a makeshift land-based studio at a village in Smith Sound near Cape Caution during his accompaniment on government tours of inspection on the H.M.S Boxer in 1873, were later edited, marketed for sale as cartes de visite with an imprint noting “Mrs. R. Maynard, Photographic Artist.”

General note

Portraits of First Nations and Indigenous sitters and/or clients created by European photographers and artists during the pre- and post-confederation era in Fort Victoria in the Colony of Vancouver Island were used by First Nations and Indigenous people and communities in their own lifeways, such as collecting, displaying and sharing images in family photo albums, memorializing departed ancestors in mortuary ceremonies or representing important political figures in governance.

General note

Richard Maynard visited the southern region (First Nations including those of Huu-ay-aht , Tse-shaht and Uchucklesaht peoples), central region (First Nations including those of Ahousaht and Tla-o-qui-aht peoples ) and northern region (First Nations including those of the Kyuquot and Mowachaht/Muchalaht peoples) in Nuu-chah-nulth territories in the fall of 1874. R. Maynard was accompanying Superintendent of Indian Affairs, Israel Wood Powell (1836-1915) on government tours of inspection of Indigenous communities including around Vancouver Island on the H.M.S. Boxer.

General note

The Maynard Studio had several locations over the course of its history, most notably operations at Douglas, Johnston and Pandora Streets in Victoria. After the first location, Mrs. R. Maynard’s Photographic Gallery shared the premises with Richard Maynard’s boot and shoe business.

From 1874, the studio had moved to a location on Douglas and Johnston streets and was inhabited until 1892. Between 1892 to 1912, the Maynard Studio operated out of a location on Pandora Street in Victoria.

General note

Mr. A. H. Maynard and his family are closely linked to the Maynard photographic studio business, Mrs. R. Maynard’s Photographic Gallery, as well as Richard Maynard’s business. Upon his father’s retirement in the late 1890s, Albert took on the role of general manager of his father’s business as well as taking over management of the photographic stock. Near the end of his life in the early 1930s, Albert Hatherly Maynard facilitated the distribution of his parent’s photographic work to educational institutions such as those on the west coast of Canada and United States. As a business owner, Albert H. Maynard operated photographic businesses with several locations over the course of his lifetime. He held business operations in Victoria, including at Pandora and Yates Streets.

General note

This series contains negatives formerly housed in multiple BC Archive and Records Service manuscript containers. Labels on these containers contained the following information: "Maynard Coll. Misc. Glass Negs. Found scattered through the collection no provenance" and "#39"; "Maynard Coll. Box 7.7|Indians|#86"; "Maynard Coll. Box 7.11| Indians, Box 7.12| Indians |#90"; "Maynard Coll. Box 7.13 Indians | Box 7.14 Indians|#91"; "Maynard Coll. Box 7.15| Indians" and "#92"; "Maynard Coll. Box 7.19|Indians -Indian portraits. #23 plates|#95."

General note

This series contains negatives formerly housed in original negative boxes with [Provincial Library] labels and stickers placed on boxes. One box was located and includes the following information on the sticker: "Box 7.7 Indians” and the following information listed on the label: “Box 7.7 Indians: Alert Bay | Bella Coola | Smith’s Inlet | Haidas”

Physical description

Handwritten captions can be found written on the surface of one of the negatives in this series (see J-04841).

Accompanying material

Additional documentation regarding Maynard, Dally or Gentile’s studio portraits of Indigenous sitters and/or clients featured in this series is available.

Documentation can be found in the research files for the 2010 Royal BC Museum publication “Images from the Likeness House” by former Collections Manager for the Royal BC Museum’s Indigenous Audiovisual Collections Dan Savard. The publication and associated research files feature works featured in this series. This material was created by current and past staff and researchers of the Royal BC Museum and includes biographical, contextual, and photographic research information. Frequently this includes reproductions of published articles, material culture collections research, related photographs held at BC Archives, the Royal BC Museum and other institutions, copies of related government records, as well as research notes and researcher correspondence. Please contact the Indigenous Collections and Repatriation department to determine the access status of these records. For examples see files for PN-4325 (page 3), PN-8736-B (page 32) and PN-1441 (page 108).

Maynard family research files are also available. This includes photographic research for studio portraits (Indigenous and non-Indigenous sitters) marketed by Hannah Maynard and Richard Maynard. There are examples of various Maynard photographers’ markings (e.g. imprints, captions, stamps, signatures). There are also several files with documentation on the use of Maynard studio portraits in experimental works (including composites using Indigenous studio portraits and field photographs). In addition, there are copies of contemporary essays, journal articles, exhibition catalogs and published books relating to studio portraits (Indigenous and non-Indigenous sitters) marketed by Hannah Maynard. A small amount of research for Chief Sitakeenum/Cedarkanim, Chief Arthur Wellington Clah, the “First Chief of Fort Rupert” and other sitters are also included here. This material was created by current and past staff and researchers of BC Archives. Please contact the BC Archives to determine the access status of these records.

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