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Maynard family collection Portraits
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Experimental photographic works of Mrs. R. Maynard’s Photographic Gallery

Series consists of 41 photographs of experimental works of photographer Hannah Maynard (1834-1918) of Mrs. R. Maynard’s Photographic Gallery produced by Mrs. R. Maynard between 1880 and 1899. Photographs are attributed to Hannah with a small number of works featuring photographs attributed to Richard or Hannah Maynard. Amongst the earliest photographic works are those “Gems of British Columbia” photocollages produced in the early 1880s. The photographs appear to be produced for the purposes of creating commercial photographic products of and for the clientele of children and family studio portraits, the creation of Maynard autobiographical works using advanced technical photographic skill, and to a lesser extent to showcase the photographic portfolio of the Maynard photographers in the 1880s to 1890s. This series presents a portion of the less conventional and more experimental portfolio of photographer and artist Hannah Maynard of Mrs. R. Maynard’s Photographic Gallery during the late 19th century in Victoria, British Columbia within the latter half of Hannah Maynard’s career.

Hannah Maynard was an artist, as well as a photographer. During the 1880s and 1890s, she was known for producing experimental works such as photocollages, composite and montage photographic works in addition to her more conventional portrait photography depicting the "upper echelons of Victoria society." During this period, skills in collodion and gelatin dry processes, in various styles of photography including child and family photography, portraiture and self-portraiture, as well as experimentation and craftmanship in the technical processes of double and multiple exposures and composite photography, cut-and-paste montage, photosculptures (referred to by Hannah Maynard as “living statuaries” or “statuary from life”) and retouching were employed to create these new works in the Maynard portfolio.

During the 1870s and 1880s, Hannah and Richard took several working trips together where they both practiced landscape photography. This included trips to Vancouver Island, Haida Gwaii (then referred to as the Queen Charlotte Islands) and to Banff, Alberta.

During the 1880s and 1890s, composite works of a different nature were also produced during this time which fused landscape views, field photographs as well as studio portraits or land-based studio portraits to create blended “documentary” or fabricated images of First Nations and Indigenous peoples.

The Maynard experimental works received acknowledgements, praise and commentary in Canada and the United States from trade publications such as St. Louis Photographer (also known as St. Louis and Canadian Photographer) and The Practical Photographer. The St. Louis Photographer published a work in the “Gems of British Columbia" series in 1886, and in another instance published a dedication in a poem entitled: “Gems of British Columbia 1881, 1882, 1883, 1884, 1885.” In the May 1894 issue of The Practical Photographer, praise was given for Hannah Maynard's “Gems” telling its readership: “Mrs. Maynard is celebrated for her new year cards, called the "Gems of British Columbia." We hope to reproduce one of these in an early issue, but in the meantime it may be explained that the card consists of a reduced photograph of all the children taken during the past year. One of these cards is sent to each mother whose child is represented therein. They are very clever productions, and bear evidence of much ability and perseverance.” Although knowledge on double and multiple exposure techniques during the 1880s was available to other photographers in publications such as Scientific American and categorized in articles as “amusing” or “illusive” photography, autobiographical works of Hannah Maynard were viewed more as abnormal by these same outlets. In 1894, when Hannah Maynard sent copies of self-portraits or tableau vivants using double and multiple exposure techniques to St. Louis and the Canadian Photographer these works were seen as “on the freak order, showing Mrs. Maynard in different positions on the same plate.”

As commercial products, experimental works were marketed by the Maynards to promote their photographic portfolio and services. From 1881 until about 1895, the "Gems of British Columbia" works which featured selected children, largely Anglo-European subjects as well as a number of clients from African American and Chinese pioneer families photographed throughout the year were used to market photographic services to existing and potentially future clientele of children and family photography. Some “Gems of British Columbia” works were marketed by Mrs. R. Maynard using the Maynard Studio's second and third studios as evidenced by imprints reflecting addresses “Cor. Douglas & Johnson Sts” and “41 ½ Pandora Avenue Near Douglas Street” on the backs of card mounted prints. In some cases, some multi-image montages featuring landscape views (views sometimes attributed Richard Maynard), were marketed by Richard and Hannah Maynard separately using the Maynard Studio's first and second studios as evidenced by imprints reflecting addresses “Douglass Street” and “Cor. Douglas & Johnson Streets” displayed on card mounts.

Later on experimental works were reproduced and published by other Victoria businesses for their own advertising purposes. Montages featuring works attributed to Richard Maynard were also included in illustrated publications for the city. In one example, a Victoria Illustrated of 1891 featured a number of multi-image photographic montages on various themes of local Victoria and vicinity interests such as Beacon Hill Park, Esquimalt Harbour, the Gorge and “Victoria Arm,” as well as local European organizations, business districts, institutions (Covent School of St. Anne’s, The Victoria Theatre, St. Joseph’s Hospital and Royal Jubilee Hospital, the Provincial Museum). These were used to aid the promotion of the City of Victoria in the Province of British Columbia “–its resources, terminal advantages, general industries and climate of Victoria, the ‘Queen City’ and its tributary country.” This version was published by “Ellis & Co., ‘The Colonist’” in 1891.

By the 1890s, the Maynard family had experienced the loss of members of their immediate and extended family. Hannah's daughter Laura Lillian Maynard had died in the early 1880s, daughter Emma Macdonald nee Maynard and daughter-in-law Adelaide Maynard died in the 1890s.

This series consists of 20 collodion and gelatin dry glass plate negatives in 5x8, 6.5x8.5, 8x10 and 10x12 inch sized plates. The bulk of the images are photographs of photographic works. The works represent examples of Hannah Maynard of Mrs. R. Maynard’s Photographic Gallery infant, child and baby studio portraiture and portraiture clientele, compositions of field photographs and landscape views of British Columbia and North America attributed to the Maynards and taken on various photographic work trips, as well as studio-based autobiographical works featuring the Maynard family and Hannah Maynard in tableau vivants and self-portraits using double and multiple exposures, photo-sculpture as well as other photographic techniques. There does not appear to be associated photograph numbers for the original negatives identified on plates or in the visual information in the photograph. There are captions and dates within some of the “Gems of British Columbia” works. The photographer’s name can be found stamped or printed within the individual photographs featured in one of the montage works featured here (J-04573).

There are eight “Gems of British Columbia” photocollages represented in MS-3380. They are attributed to be the “Gems” for the years 1880, 1885, 1890, 1891, 1893, 1894, 1895, 1896. There are three works that have several alternate versions. These alternate versions differ by photographic process (collodion vs. gelatin dry plate negative), nature of annotations or embellishment to the work, or the angle of the camera when documenting the collage. In some cases, a studio background is visible, as are instruments holding the framed work up to be photographed. “Gems” contain similar design elements including cropped versions of studio portraits of infants, babies and children in various sizes. Within the portraits of children, props and studio settings are sometimes included in the design and composition and are visible. Some contain complete or partial “Gems” from previous years. Some contain cropped figures from photo-sculptures within the composition of the work. Other examples of Maynard’s portfolio of work are included in some of the “Gems” and are not limited to studio portraiture (e.g. outdoor photographs of Maynard family members cycling). Portraits and photographs of people in these works represent a selection of Hannah Maynard of Mrs. R. Maynard’s Photographic Gallery’s infant, child and baby studio portraiture clientele, the bulk of which represent largely Anglo-European individuals and families, as well as individuals and families from African American and Chinese pioneer families to a lesser extent. For an example of the representation of children from African American pioneer families in Hannah Maynard's “Gems of British Columbia” series, see the “Gem” attributed to 1896 featured in this series. Members of the Maynard family are also represented. In some cases, Hannah Maynard appears as a tiny cut-out on the outskirts of a photocollage work.

Also in this series, works representing Maynard autobiographical works consist of five tableau vivants (8x10 inch plates) and two self-portraits of Hannah Maynard (5x8 inch plates) as gelatin dry or collodion glass plate negatives. These composite works are composed of several photographed merged together to form a single work. Tableau vivants feature Hannah and other Maynard family members (living and deceased) and depict various domestic scenes within a Victorian parlor setting. Hannah's daughter Laura Lillian Maynard, Emma Macdonald nee Maynard, daughter-in-law Adelaide Maynard and grandson Maynard Macdonald are featured in several of the works, represented as photosculptures and studio props (of studio portraits and other commercial photographic products used to adorn of domestic interiors such as cushions) within tableaux compositions (J-04565, J-04567, J-04568). Studio elements such as studio flooring (rose pattern), curtains, lighting, props and/or artificial backdrop attributed to Mrs. R. Maynard's Photographic Gallery are visible. Many of the tableau vivants and self-portraits do contain evidence of manipulation on the surface of the negatives. There are touch ups within the areas of the facial features, dominantly on Hannah Maynard, which results in the visual reduction of wrinkles on her face.

Finally, there are two different multi-image montages included in MS-3380 and are attributed to Hannah Maynard. These works, both gelatin dry glass plate negatives (8x10 inch plates), are part of a number of montages created in the 1880s and 1890s. Both works depict how they have been physically composed (puttied together or nailed in close proximity) to form a single work and photographed. Field photography and landscape works included in the compositions relate to photographs taken by the Maynards produced during different photographic trips taken throughout their photographic careers. Views likely represent scenes in British Columbia in the 1860s and 1880s, in Alberta in the 1880s, in Alaska or the Pribilof Islands taken between 1870s and 1890s, along with other views that encompass First Nation and Indigenous traditional territories and colonial settlements. Landscape views contain information about geographical features and natural resources such as mountains ranges and passes, rivers, creeks and lakes, seal habitats (Alaska/ Pribilof Islands), specific geographical formations such as “Lady Franklin Rock, Fraser River,” and along with parks that appear to be recorded such as National Park (Banff). Photographs also include views of wagon roads, steamers and views of the Fraser River and interior B.C. region likely produced by the Maynards or other photographers (Frederick Dally or Louis A. Blanc) documenting Barkerville, the Cariboo and the Cariboo Roads in British Columbia during the period before and after the Fraser River gold rush of the 1860s. Photographs also include views of railroad stations, bridge and trestle construction, pathways and routes, in addition to views of colonial settlements such as Kamloops, likely produced during the Maynards documentation of the Canadian Pacific Railway construction in British Columbia and Alberta in the 1880s. There are also photographs with field photographs that document the presence of Indigenous lifeways including fishing activities, with views of fishing stations, on the Fraser River (J-04572). In one of the montage works featured in this series (J-04573), many of the individual photographs contained in the photograph are identified as works by Mrs. R. Maynard in this instance.

Maynard, Hannah (Hatherly)

Gwa'sala people, Takush Harbour

Item consists of one photograph of 13 unidentified Gwa'sala adults, children, and babies posed on a gravel beach in front of wooden dwellings. Portions of two small boats can be seen at either side of the image. The photograph is taken at Takush Harbour, along with a series of portraits of many of the same individuals pictured here.

The ICAR photograph PN10074 has additional details about this photograph.

Indigenous studio portraits of Mrs. R. Maynard’s Photographic Gallery

The series consists predominantly of studio portraits of Indigenous people. The majority of the photographs were taken by Hannah Maynard in her studio, however some of the photographs are attributed to Frederick Dally and Carlo Gentile (and perhaps others). It is assumed that the Maynards later purchased and distributed these photographs as well. When known, notes are added at the item level.

The bulk of the photographs were produced by Maynard, Dally and Gentile for the purposes of creating and marketing commercial photographic products popular during the 1860s and 1870s in Victoria, and to a lesser extent for the purpose of fulfilling individual photographic orders of studio clientele in the late 1880s or 1890s. Many of these photographs were marketed as cartes de visites. The studio produced conventional portraits as well as composite photographs, which blended the subject of a portrait with landscape views of field photography.

Cultural groups are identified at the item level when known. This identification relies on identical versions of the photographs held within the Indigenous Collections and Repatriation department.

Maynard, Hannah (Hatherly)

Maynard family album

The file consists of one photograph album containing 167 photographs both loose and affixed to pages. The majority of the photographs are not identified, but many of those that are identified are inscribed as members of the Maynard family. The photographs depict family gatherings and activities in and around Victoria.

The album is embossed with a generic album title, "Impressions of places and people." A note in pencil is inscribed on the inside front cover: "Newcombe? Prob. Maynard"

My Automobile Trips / Lillian E Maynard

File consists of one family album containing a black leather cover with gold embossing on the cover and 91 photographic prints of various sizes adhered to forty-nine black album pages. Lillian E. Maynard’s life, family, and friends are documented through portrait and landscape photographs as well as newspaper clippings. Members of the Maynard family are depicted including Lillian’s brother Richard James Maynard; Katie Adelaide and her sons Albert, Robert, and Jack Walker; and unidentified infants, babies, children and adults. Landscapes include views of Saanich (Saanich Inlet, Island Highway Saanich Road, Little Cadboro Bay), Oak Bay (McNeill Bay, Willows Beach), Elk Lake, Jordon River, Cameron Lake, Colwood, Courtney, Sooke (Inner Sooke Harbour “Saseenos”) and Mount Baker. The album features a small number of Victoria tourist views including Belmont House at the Parliament buildings, Dunsmuir Castle, Butchart Gardens, Victoria Harbour, and the C.P.R. docks (1927). Near the end of the album are three of Hannah and Richard Maynard’s photographs, including Richard's award-winning landscape view, "The Arm", and two of Hannah’s annual “Gems of British Columbia" composite photographs. The album concludes with a newspaper article "Carry a Camera It Pays, says Fair Motorist" from The Daily Colonist, April 1919. It contains news coverage of a car crash involving Lillian and Richard and features images of the crash, Lillian, and her Kodak camera. In the article, she is credited for documenting the incident and later using the photographic evidence in court.

Maynard, Lillian Elizabeth

Photograph album of Mrs. A. H. Maynard, 1872 - 1892

File is a family carte de visite album with a brown leather cover and metal clasps containing photographic prints, the bulk of which are card-mounted studio portraits that document the Maynard family, in particular the Albert Hatherly Maynard and Adelaide Maynard (nee Graham) family. The album is attributed to Adelaide Maynard, and appears to have been a gift to Adelaide Graham (1859-1892) from Albert Maynard (1857-1934). Photographs depict Adelaide Maynard’s domestic life before and after her marriage through primarily portraits, as well as a few snapshots and other materials that document her circle of family and friends of her and her husband, her role as a wife and a mother, and the domestic life of a Victorian family. The bulk of the photographs are credited to photographer Mrs. R. Maynard (1834-1918) but there are also works of other commercial photographers including Ontario based W.A. Cooper and JAS. Egan’s New Photographic & Portrait Gallery. The album includes popular Maynard family images that appear in other Maynard family albums.

The family album consists of 100 photographic prints, including sepia toned albumen carte de visites, plus other portrait forms such as tintype miniature portraits inserted in twenty-five pages. There are annotations found on some album pages and also on the verso of prints. Information largely consists of names and occasionally the age of the subject or the price of the print. There does not appear to be dates or associated photograph numbers for the original negatives present on album pages or prints. Mounted cards, carte de visites, often contain imprints on the verso noting the name and studio location. On nine of the pages prints appear to have been removed. There are also several prints housed loose within the album. Other materials include a few hand-painted photographs, a business card and several seasonal greeting cards which do not contain photographs.

A.H. Maynard family members are represented in individual and group studio photographs. The album includes individual and group portraits of Albert Hatherly and Adelaide Maynard, several mother and child portraits of Mrs. A. Maynard and child, as well as individual portraits of their infant children including John Ridgemen Maynard (b.1879). The album also includes portraits containing the following names in their associated captions: "Bob Liddell," "Mary Vipond," "Jack Kirkup," "G Anderson," "Frank Graham," and "J. Carter." Some of these captions refer to photographs which are missing from the album.

Likenesses of Albert Maynard’s mother (Hannah Maynard) and his siblings including Emma Maynard (1859 or 1860-1893), Zela Maynard (1854-1913), and Laura Lillian “Lillie” Maynard (1867-1883) are also featured frequently in individual and group portraits sometimes depicting domestic scenes and activities. Arthur S. Rappertie (1854?-1923) who worked for the Maynards in the 1870s to early 1900s is also present here. There are a number of unidentified prints of infants, babies, children and adults, including a number of male sitters, which may or may not relate to the Maynard family. There are several non-studio images, family photographs taken on excursions at the beach, at a group picnic, and outside a residence.

Portrait styles reflected in the album include headshots, side profiles, as well as mid and full-length likenesses that employ a variety of studio props. Several portraits of the Maynard children depict Mrs. R. Maynard’s use of side lighting techniques. Child and baby portraits, as well as those of toy dolls present in the album, are similar portrayals than those featured in Hannah Maynard’s annual “Gems of British Columbia" series of portrait montages of the 1880s and 1890s.

There are also portraits of other individuals and objects. These include commercial cartes of “Effie German,” as well as a number of portraits of children’s dolls including a tintype with the annotation “Mifs M.A. Morton” on the verso of the print. There is a business card of James F. Macdonald, the husband of Emma Maynard. The album concludes with two New Year's greeting cards: one addressed to A. H. Maynard and the other Mrs. Albert H. Maynard.

Maynard, Adelaide M.

Photograph album of Mrs. R. Maynard’s Photographic Gallery

File consists of one studio photographic album with a black leather cover containing 122 photographic prints, the bulk of which are a selection of sample studio portraits and less conventional works and is attributed to Mrs. R. Maynard’s Photographic Gallery. The album presents a portfolio of 19th century infant, baby, child and youth studio portraiture featuring a range of commercial options from the Maynard Studio. Photographic subjects include clients identified as being from the Harris, Redfern, Wallis and Gambie families, along with children of other families. Members of the Maynard family including Hannah Maynard, George Maynard (son of Hannah and Richard Maynard), Richard James Maynard (son of Albert H. Maynard), Harry and Maynard MacDonald (grandchildren of Hannah and Richard Maynard and children of daughter Emma Maynard) are also depicted in individual and group portraits.

Photograph album of the A.H. Maynard family

The file is a family photograph album with a black leather cover with a metal clasp containing 32 card mounted photographic prints, the bulk of which are a selection of individual and group portraits depicting several generations of the Maynard family, in particular the Albert H. Maynard and Adelaide M. Maynard (nee Graham) family. Many of the prints feature portraits of infants, children, youth and adult members of the Maynard family including Albert H. Maynard, his mother Hannah Maynard and his siblings Zela Maynard, Laura Lillian Maynard and Emma Maynard, as well as his wife Adelaide. Laura Lillian Maynard and baby Richard James Maynard appear frequently throughout the album, either in individual portraits or group portraits together or with mother and grandmother Hannah Maynard. The majority of the photographs are attributed to photographer Hannah Maynard of Mrs. R. Maynard’s Photographic Gallery but there are also works of other commercial photographers including Washington based “Peiser” (Seattle) represented here. The album includes popular Maynard family images that appear in other Maynard family albums.

Photograph album of the Maynard family

File is a large family photograph album with a light brown leather cover and a metal clasp containing 121 photographic prints, the bulk of which are card-mounted studio portraits that document several generations of the Maynard family. Many of the photographs are attributed to photographer Hannah Maynard but there are also works of other commercial photographers including those identified as “H Thorn” (Bude Haven), “E.W. Burnham Photo” (Cannington, Ontario), “Bradley & Ruloeson” and “J. Hawke” (Plymouth). The album includes popular Maynard family images that appear in other Maynard family albums, including photographs of Hannah and Richard Maynard and their children (George, Albert Hatherly, Emma, Zela and Laura Lillian Maynard) and grandchildren (including John Ridgemen and Richard James Maynard) who are depicted in individual and group portraits.

Photograph album of the Maynard family

File is a large family photograph album with a yellow-green velour cover containing 69 card mounted photographic prints, the bulk of which are studio portraits that document numerous individuals and families, some of whom are members of the Maynard family. Many of the photographs are attributed to photographer Hannah Maynard of Mrs. R. Maynard’s Photographic Gallery, but there are also works of other commercial photographers and photographic studios including those identified as Washington based “Roberts & Kautz” and “Peiser’s Art Studio”/“Theo E. Peiser”(Seattle), as well as “A L. Jackson” (Tacoma). There are also works from photographers: “[Will] A. Peek” (Yaquina, Oregon), “Taber” (San Francisco) and photographic businesses “R. & H. O’Hara Photographers, BookSellers, Insurance Agents & c.,” (Bowmanville, Ontario). The album includes popular Maynard family images that appear in other Maynard family albums.

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