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Chinatown (Victoria, B.C.)
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Nancy [pseudonym] interview

RECORDED: Vancouver (B.C.), 1984-03-13 SUMMARY: Born 1921. Family history, from China to Canada. Work in home as a child. Mother's work in home. Growing up in Victoria's Chinatown on Fisgard and Cormorant Streets. Shopping for food daily in Chinatown. Kindergarten at Oriental [?] Home. Education at Chinese school and public school. Chinese women working in stores as clerks; their chores and responsibilities. Farm work in Saanich. Tea room women in restaurants. Nancy as an adult. Foot binding -- mother. Kitchen technology. Nancy's experience as a domestic. The discrimination she experiences as a Chinese woman.

Chinese women and work in B.C. collection

  • PR-1754
  • Collection
  • 1984

The collection consists of oral history interviews with Chinese women about their experiences working in British Columbia from the 1920s to the 1950s. The interviews, with nine first-, second- or third-generation Chinese-Canadian women, were recorded in Vancouver, Victoria and New Westminster during the first half of 1984. The project focused on "women's work" (whether paid or unpaid), including work in the home and in family businesses. The interviews discuss the kind of work these women did; what they experienced; how they perceived their roles in the family and the Chinese community; and the legislative policies which affected their work and their lives. The interviewees are to remain anonymous, and should be referred to only by the assigned pseudonyms. In addition, two of the interviews are closed to public access.

Adilman, Tamara

Ruth [pseudonym] interview

RECORDED: Victoria (B.C.), 1984-02-28 SUMMARY: Born 1913. Genealogy of family and early childhood in Vancouver. Growing up near Chinatown. Family participation in tailor business. Work in home and school. Poverty of family life. Marriage and life after. Work in in-laws' home and family responsibilities. Children and child care. Church activities. Shopping in Chinatown. Cooking, cleaning and washing clothes experience. Technological change in the kitchen.

[CHEK-TV news film -- Victoria construction #1]

Stock shots. 1. Synagogue; church steeple; church exteriors. 2. Beaconville Apartments. 3. Congregation Emanuel Temple (Canada's oldest synagogue) being restored. 4. Unidentified interview [Rabbi or architect?]. 5. Metropolitan Store; street scenes. 6. Oak Bay Village. 7. Johnson Street Bridge. 8. Chinese hospital. 9. Coastal scenes. 10. E&N Railway 90th anniversary (1888-1978); train, station, engineer, conductor, etc. 11. Airport -- Air Canada counter. 12. Old Carnegie Library building. 13. Church interior -- Stations of the Cross. 14. St. Anne's Academy -- development plans. 15. Chinatown scenes. 16. Artist's drawing of gate; chart on wall, ending at June 28, 1981. 17. Undeveloped city land [ at St. Anne's?]. 18. Construction site. 19. Sewage outfall; protest banner; Clover Point. 20. Wrecking ball on the waterfront. 21. Office building and mall nearing completion. 22. Refinishing plaster work and gilt finish. Crystal Garden renovation. 23. Construction site. 24. Old building being renovated -- construction scenes.

[Bawlf presentation]

News item. Part 6 of a 7-part consecutive series on Victoria's Chinatown. MLA and cabinet minister Sam Bawlf presents Dr. David Lai with the original deed for the Victoria Chinese Free Mason's building. Its wording indicates the members' support for the Chinese Revolution that overthrew the Manchu government. Dr. Lai has done research with Ray McKenzie and Ray Foster for two years to uncover documents.

[Fan Tan Alley]

News item. Part 5 of a 7-part consecutive series on Victoria's Chinatown. Footage of Fan Tan Alley, Chinatown backyards and old Chinese hospital. No sound.

James Chan interview

CALL NUMBER: T3721:0001 SUPPLIED TITLE OF TAPE(S): James Chan : Chinese at work in B.C. : restaurants PERIOD COVERED: 1894-1925 RECORDED: Victoria (B.C.), 1980-07-30 SUMMARY: TRACK 1: Describes background: born 1894 in China; father came to Canada and worked in laundries; he came to Canada 1910-11 on the Empress of Japan; went to public and Chinese school when first arrived in Victoria; talks of marriage proposals by Chinese Canadian-born women in Victoria; talks of first job as a houseboy in a boarding house. Tells of the 21 day journey of the Empress ship to Canada: living conditions; ship companions; description of boat. Talks of Immigration Building in Victoria. Talks of first impressions of Victoria and the arrangement made by his father to receive him. Description of the Chinese quarters around Victoria and the location of various shops and restaurants, ca. 1910. TRACK 2: Talks of the various personalities in Chinatown around 1910. Talks of going to school after work to learn English. Refers to the cutting of his pigtail before the Chinese revolution, 1911, in China and giving the hair to his mother. Refers to the "Rock Bay incident" where Chinese students were segregated from white students. Description of his living quarters, i.e. living in the "fong" with 20 people on the floor and toilet. Using the baths at the barber shop.

CALL NUMBER: T3721:0002 SUPPLIED TITLE OF TAPE(S): James Chan : Chinese at work in B.C. : restaurants PERIOD COVERED: 1915-1970 RECORDED: Victoria (B.C.), 1980-07-30 SUMMARY: Discusses people in the "fong" mostly Lee's, and thus related to his mother. Discusses the factionalism of some Chinese societies, i.e. Chinese Freemasons and the Dartcoon Club, Chan Association and the Toy San Association. Different businesses in Victoria were controlled by certain last names, i.e.. Laundries by Wong's and Mar's; lumbering by Hoi Ping District Chinese. Talks of the big fire and explosion of gas tanks in Victoria. Only four Chinese, between 1910-20, had cars: Lee Mong Kew, Tim Kee, Lim Bang & (?). Talks of labour contract offices in town and personal referral systems for jobs. Discusses the various jobs he had as a cook in restaurants. Anecdote of rivalry between him and the cook "Quan" when he worked in a private residence. Talks of competition and pettiness of some personalities in the restaurant business, and gives a series of examples. Compares wages of restaurant cooks and other occupations Chinese were in. Unionism and Chinese in restaurants: Chinese were closed from the union in the early days. First paid vacation by a restaurant was 1935. Talks of evolution of the mechanization and improvement of equipment in the restaurants. Talks of improvements made after WW II in equipment and working conditions. Working at Work Point Barracks as a cook for the armed forces in the 1960s.

CALL NUMBER: T3721:0003 SUPPLIED TITLE OF TAPE(S): James Chan : Chinese at work in B.C. : restaurants PERIOD COVERED: 1911-1940 RECORDED: Victoria (B.C.), 1980-07-30 SUMMARY: TRACK 1: Helped train relations and other Chans in the restaurant business. Opened and owned a restaurant, but went broke during Depression. Compares the differences between white owned and Chinese owned restaurants. Worked 7 days a week, and 12 hours a day. Chinese New Year: cooks who worked in private residences demanded 4-5 days off from their employers. Talks of Christianity and his views on religion. Refers to poll tax and road tax collected at work. Talks of the difficulty of educated Chinese who could not get work as professionals before 1949 in Canada. Description of William Head Quarantine Station when the Chinese labour force from China were quarantined en route to France. Worked on the CPR Princess line as cook in 1919. Having clothes tailor-made by Chinese tailors in Victoria. Description of the events/celebrations in Victoria after the August 1911 Revolution in China, and the Chinese Consolidated Benevolent Association. Vivid description of Dr. Sun Yet Sun during his tour of Victoria, refers to his speech at the Chinese Theatre and Sun's faux pas about "wanting to be king", after the revolution of the Manchus. TRACK 2: Refers to the visit of Kang Yu Wei [Kang Youwei] and his talk at the Empire Reform Association. Speaks of the incident of the murder of a man of Manchu descent after the 1911 Revolution in Victoria Chinatown.

CALL NUMBER: T3721:0004 SUPPLIED TITLE OF TAPE(S): James Chan : Chinese at work in B.C. : restaurants PERIOD COVERED: 1920-1952 RECORDED: Victoria (B.C.), 1980-08-13 SUMMARY: Mr. Chan discusses: attending Sunday School at Chinese Mission; Chinese Theatre in Victoria (description of the building and the travelling opera company); description of Chinese women in Victoria and especially references to their dress. Incident of the "Variety" theatre house which would not allow Chinese patrons. Chinese using Chinese dry goods shops as private "banks". Talks of the restaurants; which went broke and employees taking a cut in pay during the Depression. The Chinese Consolidated Benevolent Association organized a "soup kitchen" for the Chinese during the Depression. Many Chinese returned to China during the Depression to visit and "wait it out". Apply for family to immigrate to Canada in 1950. Describes difficulty in applying for immigration status because he stayed in China for more than one year during his last visit. Speaks of his friend who learned to fly planes in order to return to China to help the KMT to fight against the Communists. Speaks of the conscription of Chinese-Canadians during WW II. Fundraiser in Victoria by KMT for the internal war in China. Refers to the "swindling and graft" by some members of the Chan Family Association. Information about his family: children and 2 wives. Talks of the after-hours restaurants he ate at after his shift cooking for others.

CALL NUMBER: T3721:0005 SUPPLIED TITLE OF TAPE(S): James Chan : Chinese at work in B.C. : restaurants PERIOD COVERED: 1920-1980 RECORDED: Victoria (B.C.), 1980-08-13 SUMMARY: TRACK 1: Discusses: gambling in Victoria Chinatown; obtaining work permits at Manpower and Immigration for friends; the difficulty in getting dishwashers in restaurants during WW II. Chinese immigrants borrowing and paying high interest for $500 head tax. Chinese cemetery and the sending of bones back to China. Illegal entry of the Chinese into Canada. Comparison of the Chinese community in Victoria at present and in the past. Settling disputes of Chinese within the Chinese community by family and clan associations. Anecdote of an open fist fight between Kuomingtang Association and the Chinese Freemasons in Victoria. Story of the murder in daylight of a Chinese by a Chinese in Chinatown. TRACK 2: Chinese New Year's celebrations in Victoria's Chinatown. Ching Ming--describes the spring Chinese ceremony of commemorating the dead. His wish for the opportunity for more education. Description of various shops in Chinatown area. Talks of Tim Kee and Lim Bang, two prominent Chinese residents in Victoria. Description of Chinese laundries in Victoria. Chinese working in the fish canneries. Chinese women not encouraged to go to school in Victoria. The disintegration of Chinatown at present. Predicts the future of the New Horizon's Club in the Toy San Association building. (End of interview).

[Victoria's Chinatown -- Chinese culture]

News item. Part 3 of a 7-part consecutive series on Victoria's Chinatown. Representatives from Chinatown explain some aspects of Chinese culture, both here and in China. A meeting of these men would probably be equivalent to our Chamber of Commerce or city council, except that all members are Chinese. This "council" has very firm roots and it is responsible for a smooth-running Chinese community.

Rev. Yee Jing Chow interview

CALL NUMBER: T3715:0001 SUPPLIED TITLE OF TAPE(S): Rev. Yee Jing Chow : Chinese Christian missionary PERIOD COVERED: 1899-1980 RECORDED: Victoria (B.C.), 1980-06-27 SUMMARY: TRACK 1: Discusses background: born in Hoiping, Kwantang, China on Aug.12, 1899; immigrated to Vancouver, B.C. 1912 to teach Chinese; early education; father immigrated to Ashcroft, B.C.; no contact with father; immigration would not exempt him from $500 head tax without his teacher's certificate; the Christian mission was able to obtain a refund. Stayed in Vancouver and worked for the mission teaching Chinese and playing the piano for almost 2 years. Dr. Osterhout head of mission: asked him to work in Nelson. Stayed in Nelson and travelled for the mission around the area, Rossland and Grand Forks. Tells of the many types of occupations the Chinese did in area (i.e., laundries, building the road, chopping wood). Travelled on paddlewheel boat on the Okanagan lakes. Talks of the good Chinese/white relations in the area and the kindness of the Chinese people who received him in every town. The United Church in Vancouver sponsor his return to China for four years to study theology. Returns to Vancouver in 1924 with wife and daughter to work in missions in interior of province. Talks of his work in the missions and the small towns. TRACK 2: Discusses the Depression: the Chinese mission; was not directly involved with the soup kitchens, so he helped in the Salvation Army storefronts. Tells a story of a Chinese man who donates to the church though he could not afford to. Relates Chinese social life and celebrations in B.C. interior towns: opium, Chinese women, meeting place. Moved to Victoria in 1946: description of Chinese United Church in Victoria; talks of woman missionary Miss Peters and her dedicated work in the church. Daily routines for the past 22 years of retirement. Refers to his present home which is the original building of the Oriental Girls' Home. CALL NUMBER: T3715:0002 SUPPLIED TITLE OF TAPE(S): Rev. Yee Jing Chow : Chinese Christian missionary PERIOD COVERED: 1920-1960 RECORDED: Victoria (B.C.), 1980-07-08 SUMMARY: TRACK 1: Son born in Moose Jaw, Saskatchewan. Work as a missionary in Moose Jaw for 10 years and then moved to Kamloops, B.C. In Moose Jaw, he ministered the whole area up to Winnipeg. When he arrived in Victoria, the Oriental Girls' Home was already disbanded and the Home was administered by white folks (with Chinese aid). When first arrived in Canada, Rev. Chow learned to play the piano, and sang and preached outside in Vancouver streets. Some Chinese men in Victoria went back to China to fight the Japanese in WW II, but never saw action and returned to Canada. In Vancouver, Rev. Chow taught Chinese to about 10 students; taught some English to students at night school. He taught English by first learning and then re-teaching. Talks of the many shops in Vancouver Chinatown. Talks of his missionary work in the Vancouver district including Steveston farms and fish canneries. Speaks of a large Chinese farm whose owner was a Christian and welcomed him to visit. Description of that farm house. The roads that were supposed to connect many small towns in the interior were not completed so he quite often walked through trails to reach these towns. In Nelson there were only about four Chinese families and he taught the children there. TRACK 2: Describes the hand laundry delivery system. Performing marriage ceremonies. Talks of his children. Speaks of the rescue work of the Oriental Girls' Mission. Talks of his work in Moose Jaw, Sask. Speaks of his work and the function of the Chinese United Church in Victoria and how it helped the Chinese people. CALL NUMBER: T3715:0003 SUPPLIED TITLE OF TAPE(S): Rev. Yee Jing Chow : Chinese Christian missionary PERIOD COVERED: 1950-1978 RECORDED: Victoria (B.C.), 1980-07-08 SUMMARY: TRACK 1: Rev. Chow discusses: Sunday church picnics in Victoria; his children and grandchildren; future aspirations of reviving the Chinese mission; talks of the disbanding of the Chinese United Church and the selling of the property in Chinatown in Victoria. Description of the church and the mission school and living quarters. Speaks of the Chinese school teacher who taught at the school and his recent death. Speaks of Miss Peters, missionary woman who dedicated her life to help the Chinese in Victoria. (End of interview)

[Chinese New Year parade, dragon dance, etc.]

News item. Part 2 of a 7-part consecutive series on Victoria's Chinatown. Interior of Chinese temple with part of a service in Chinese. Good shots (some from elevation) of Chinese New Year's parade with dragon dance, other interpretive dances, fireworks, etc., on Fisgard Street. Inside a Chinese recreation centre, a Chinese game (mah jong?) is being played by four people with white blocks which carry inscriptions. Shows Victoria's Tam Kung temple.

[Chinatown buildings]

News item. Part 7 of a 7-part consecutive series on Victoria's Chinatown. Footage shows some Chinatown buildings. These include the Yen-Wo Society, the Chinese hospital, the Chinese school, the Gee Tuck Tong Benevolent Association (1903), and the Hook Sin Tong charity. Good close-ups; no sound.

[Chinese Temple in Victoria's Chinatown]

News item. Part 1 of a 7-part consecutive series on Victoria's Chinatown. Interior views of ornate Chinese temple; no sound. Shows Victoria's Tam Kung Temple.

[Chinese parade]

News item. Part 4 of a 7-part consecutive series on Victoria's Chinatown. Footage shows more dragon dancing (in close-up) and other Fisgard Street festivities, with flags to celebrate the Chinese New Year. Some good high-elevation shots.

[CHEK-TV news film -- December 1979 and January-August 1980]

Stock shots. 1. Flood scenes - houses awash, roads washed out, etc. 2. Seaspan's Santa in the Inner Harbour. 3. More floods and washouts. 4. CUPE Local 727 on strike in a flood. 5. Snowstorm - car wrecks and toboggans. 6. Small oil spill? Divers. 7. Premier Bill Bennett and unidentified woman [Bella Abzug?]. 8. More flood footage. 9. CPR train wreck. 10. Flotsam and jetsam on the beach. Clean-up. 11. Burst pipes in Chinatown. 12. Nuns demonstrating. 13. Fire - good action shots. 14. BC Hydro pickets. 15. Glenshiel Hotel - seniors demonstrating. 16. Student rally against tuition increase. 17. Demonstration in front of the Legislature. 18. Royal visit - [given the date, probably Princess Alexandra]. 19. Lambrick Park Secondary - vandalism. 20. Sooke Forest Products. 21. Reception - Prince Charles and Grace McCarthy. 22. Damaged aircraft - light planes. 23. Airport arrival [of ?]. 24. Satellite dish at Legislature. 25. Fernwood News. 26. Fire at the British Columbia Provincial Museum. 27. Village Green Inn in Duncan. Police artist sketches. 28. Airport arrival - [state visit?]. 29. "The Daily Colonist" shuts down. 1858-1980. The last issue. 30. Moving a house through city streets. Saanichton School. 31. A satellite dish or telescope [?] on the Legislature lawn.

[Chinatown]

News footage. News feature about Victoria's Chinatown, including footage of: historic buildings; shop windows; parade with dragon dance and martial arts (Chinese New Year?); Fan Tan Alley; gambling table; interviews with merchants; archival photos; etc.

[Chinese New Year celebrations]

News item. The last part of this film may have been made in February 1978 to show the Chinese New Year celebrations. There is some duplication here with the "Chinatown" item dated 1977-12-09, but this one has better high elevation shots of the dragon dance and musicians. Short footage of shrine ceremony.

[Chinatown]

News item. This film opens with shots of the neon signs in Victoria's Chinatown. These are followed by archival photograghs which show the history of Chinatown -- the people, the stores, the buildings and the streets. Continues with shots of modern-day business activity in Chinatown. No sound.

[Chinese Benevolent Club]

News item. A Chinese-Canadian spokesman discusses the Benevolent Association, which is actually an off-shoot of a higher Masonic order. The club has existed in mainland China for a long time. The Victoria Branch was established in 1915. The shrine inside the building, made of precious and semi-precious materials, was carved in Canton and shipped from that city.

Island life and places

Amateur film. Scenes of Vancouver Island, including the Victoria Inner Harbour, local tourist attractions, ocean shots, Chinatown, sailboats and nature shots.

Roger Monteith interview

CALL NUMBER: T1287:0001 RECORDED: [location unknown], 1962-03 SUMMARY: TRACK 1: Major Roger Monteith recalls early Victoria from the 1890s; he talks about streets; stores; cabbies; saloons; Christmastime; banks; Robert Service; Indians; Chinese peddlers and Chinatown. TRACK 2: Major Monteith continues with recollections about life in Victoria of the 1890s. He talks about the Chinese lotteries; Chinese New Year; lack of vandalism; local amusements; the causeway; th;e harbour; wholesalers; the Klondike gold rush as it affected Victoria; survey parties; Robert Flaherty; Royal Navy; Esquimalt; Navy regattas and balls; and his boyhood adventures in Victoria.;

CALL NUMBER: T1287:0002 RECORDED: [location unknown], 1962-03 SUMMARY: TRACK 1: Major Monteith continues with his recollections about his boyhood adventures; family recreations; picnics on the Gorge and Cadboro Bay; sports; horse racing; May 24 celebrations; summer camping; schooling; unusual characters; Bill Nye; Warburton Pike; the sealing fleet; sailing ships and Victoria today. TRACK 2: Major Monteith continues with his discussion about the characteristics of ;Victoria; changes; arrival of foreigners; beer parlors instead of pubs; and the influence of San Francisco in the older days.;

Victoria; Victory Loan Float F.O.E.

On Fisgard - parked in front of Sam Chong Laundry. Banner on side of truck: The Fraternal Order of Eagles and individual members have purchased $60,000 of War Bonds for Victory. How about you? Men in civil defence uniforms with helmets.

Secrets of Chinatown

Feature film. ". . . dealt with a murderous gang of opium smugglers operating in Victoria's Chinatown and the efforts of the local police to track them down. Two men disappear -- Doverscourt, a detective investigating a murder in Chinatown, and Brandham, a ship's chandler involved in the drug trafficking who has offered to tell the police all he knows because things are going too far. Completely baffled by the disappearance, Police Commissioner Parkins reluctantly turns for assistance to Donegal Dawn, a Sherlock Holmes style private detective. Meanwhile Robert Rande, a young friend of Dawn, has been threatened by the Chinese after he has shown an interest in Zenobia, a pretty blonde girl working in a Chinese curio shop, and has discussed the matter with Dawn. The Chinese villains, who invariably wear hoods and long robes, are operating from a temple and Rande now goes to this temple where Zenobia is taking part in a religious ceremony, believing herself to be 'the Eye of Lao-Tsee', and attempts to rescue her. Just as Rande is about to be knifed Dawn appears and shoots the hooded attacker. Rande soon returns for another try, only to be attacked by the missing Brandham who is acting under the influence of drugs. Dawn appears yet again and saves his life but rescues only Brandham, leaving Rande behind. Brandham quickly recovers from the effects of the drug but can remember nothing and so a visit to a yogi is arranged -- to unlock the 'subjective' half of the poor fellow's mind. Brandham reveals another hideout further up the coast of Vancouver Island. Dawn rapidly penetrates this new stronghold, hoping now to extricate both Rande and Zenobia, but this time he is captured. Fortunately Victoria's finest are not far behind and arrive in the nick of time. When the leader's hood is removed he is revealed to be Chan Tow Ling, the owner of the curio shop and a secret police operative to boot. Chan Tow Ling takes poison and Rande gets Zenobia." (Colin Browne, citing D. John Turner)

Chinese josh [joss] house

The item is a black and white cabinet card (with edges trimmed) showing a Chinese temple or Chinese community Tachiu event which may have been hosted by the Hongnen Chee Kung Tong (CKT). It may have been taken in Victoria. On the back of the card is the studio inscription of Mrs. R. Maynard's photographic studio with the address given as the corner of Douglas and Johnson Streets in Victoria. It is presumed to have been taken between 1872 and 1892 as that is when Maynard's studio was located at Douglas and Johnson Streets.

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