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Tree farm forest management plans from the Port Alberni Forest District

  • GR-3659
  • Series
  • 1971-2005, predominant 1981-2005

The series consists of tree farm forest development plans and forest management plans and created for tree farm licences (TFLs). The records were created by the Port Alberni Forest District, and its successor the South Island Forest District, between 1971 and 2005. Many of the records relate to the forestry management in the Barkley Sound, Clayoquot Sound, Walbran and Fairy Creek areas. Including forest that was the focus of protests and acts of civil disobedience in the 1990s, known as the Clayoquot protests or War of the Woods.

TFLs are a type of timber tenure which grants a virtually exclusive right to harvest timber and manage forests in a specified area. They are issued for a term of 25 years, but can be replaced every 5-10 years.

These files document the management of TFL 20, TFL 21, TFL 22, TFL 25, TFL 44, TFL 46, TFL 47, TFL 54 and TFL 57. Over the years, TFL boundaries and rights holders may have changed. For example, in 1984, TFL 20 and 21 were combined to form TFL 44, and TFL 44 was later divided to create TFL 57 in 1999.

TFL holders are required to submit a management plan every five years to the Chief Forester (RSBC 1996, c. 157, s. 35, and BC Reg. 23/2013). The Forest Act requires that the plan must:

  1. Be prepared by a professional forester;
  2. Include inventories of forest, recreation, fisheries, wildlife, range and cultural heritage resources in the area;
  3. Be consistent with the tree farm licence, legislation and regulations;
  4. Propose objectives regarding the management and utilization of timber resources, the protection and conservation of non-timber values, forest fire prevention and suppression, forest health, silviculture, and road construction and deactivation;
  5. Include proposals for meeting proposed management objectives;
  6. List measures to identify and consult with persons using the licence area for purposes other than timber production;
  7. Include a timber supply analysis that analyzes the short term and long term availability of timber for harvesting;
  8. Include an operational supply projection for the licence area, in support of the timber supply analysis that indicates the availability of timber.

These records include draft and final management or development plans; revisions or amendments to existing plans; correspondence between the ministry and licence holders, as well as correspondence with ministry staff; records related to public review of the development plans; consultation and correspondence with First Nations; reasons for why a plan or amendment was or was not approved; advertisements in newspapers and the Gazette; and maps and map overlays. The series also includes some records related to the construction, maintenance and deactivation of forest service roads in the TFLs.

The records have been classified as 19710-20 and 19710-30 in the Forestry Operational Classification System (ORCS).

The ministries responsible for these records, and the years that they were responsible, are:
Ministry of Forests (1976-1986)
Ministry of Forests and Lands (1986-1988)
Ministry of Forests (1988-2005)

British Columbia. Port Alberni Forest District

Conscientious objectors' alternative service work camp footage

The item is a video copy of amateur film footage taken by J. Harold Sherk from 1941 to 1943. It shows activities of conscientious objectors doing alternative service in B.C. during World War II under the auspices of the Forest Service. Includes: forest camp in Ontario; train trip across prairies; scenery around Banff; Green Timbers forest nursery; forestry work (land clearing); Yale; camp life, firefighting, forestry work, etc., at Campbell River, Bowser, Parksville, Cowichan area, Duncan, Shawnigan, Langford; Victoria street scenes; Rocky Mountains and Alberta foothills on train trip back east.

Diary of a trip "out West" in 1933

The item consists of an illustrated typed transcript of a diary of a trip "out West' taken by Kit A. Sauvary from June 22 to July 30, 1933. Kit Sauvary and her party traveled across the Northern United States by automobile from Toronto, entering British Columbia South of Kootenay Lake. They took the Southern Trans-Provincial Highway to Princeton, North to Spences Bridge, and down the Fraser Canyon. They visited Vancouver and Vancouver Island before returning via the Banff Windermere Highway and the Rockies, through the United States and back to Toronto. The diary was written as a series of letters to Sauvary's parents in Guernsey, typed up in 1979 and contains photographs and marked route maps of the journey from 1933.

Maynard family collection

  • PR-1259
  • Collection
  • [ca. 1862]-1937

Note: Staff are still actively working on the description of these records. The current descriptions do not accurately reflect the full scope of the records. [17 March 2022]

The collection consists of a number of private records created by the Maynard family, the selected business records of Mrs. R. Maynard's Photographic Gallery and a portion of the professional records of well-known British Columbian photographers Hannah Hatherly Maynard (1834-1918) and Richard Maynard (1832-1907). To a lesser extent, a percentage of the professional records of their son Albert Hatherly Maynard (1854-1934) are included in the collection. Primary materials include family photograph albums, a measure of the photographic portfolio of Hannah and Richard Maynard consisting of photographic negatives and prints, as well as several view and sample albums. There is also a small number of textual business records, the bulk of which consists of a single studio register that represents over 5,000 customer entries of portrait orders fulfilled at several different locations of the Maynard Studio between 1891 to 1899.

The Maynard family collection consists of the following series and discreet items:

MS-3394: Photograph albums

MS-3361: Photograph album of Mrs. R. Maynard’s Photographic Gallery

MS-3373: Albert H. Maynard photographs of the Provincial Museum’s natural history collections

MS-3374: Indigenous studio portraits of Mrs. R. Maynard’s Photographic Gallery

MS-3328: Photographic View Album by R. Maynard, Artist

MS-3384: Studio portraits of Mrs. R. Maynard’s Photographic Gallery

MS-3378: Colonial administration field photographs of Richard Maynard (Department of Indian Affairs tours of inspection)

MS-3380: Experimental photographic works of Mrs. R. Maynard’s Photographic Gallery

MS-3403: Photograph albums and photographic prints, reproductions

MS-3325: Studio register of Mrs. R. Maynard's Photographic Gallery

The Maynard family, Mrs. R. Maynard's Photographic Gallery and photographers Hannah Hatherly H. Maynard, Richard Maynard and Albert H. Maynard were based in Victoria, British Columbia. Richard Maynard’s boot and shoe business was also based in the city.

Mrs. R. Maynard’s Photographic Gallery clientele included the "upper echelons of Victoria society" including the Cridge, Douglas, O'Reilly, Harris, McNeil and Crease families, as well as members of the colonial government such as Victoria mayor John Grant among many others. It also served the spectrum of the Victoria population including temporary visitors, Indigenous day labourers, as well as pioneering Anglo-European, African American (including the Alexander and Spotts families), Caribbean (Barnswell family) and Chinese individuals, families and communities. Representatives from Indigenous governments and communities on Vancouver Island and British Columbia including the Tsimshian Chief known as Arthur Wellington Clah, and others who came for their likenesses. In the early years the studio produced conventional portraits for early inhabitants of Fort Victoria (established by the Hudson’s Bay Company) such as gold miners and sailors. In later years, clientele were documented from across British Columbia, Vancouver Island, Salts Spring Island, Haida Gwaii, Vancouver and Lytton. Also during this period, patrons came from British warships that visited the Esquimalt naval base. Institutional clients included the Peabody Museum of Archaeology and Ethnology at Harvard in the United States.

Within this collection, the works of other photographers and photographic studios are represented in the Maynard portfolio. Notably, this includes photographic negatives by well-known early pioneer British Columbian photographers such as English photographer Frederick Dally (1838-1914) and Italian photographer Carlo (Charles) Gentile (1835-1893).

There are also card mounted photographic prints from a range of photographers and photographic studios from the Western United States, Eastern Canadian provinces and the United Kingdom. Within Ontario, the former residence of the Maynard family prior to their move to Victoria in the early 1860s, a small amount of works are represented from “R. & H. O’Hara Photographers, BookSellers, Insurance Agents & c.” of Bowmanville, Ontario.

In terms of photographic subjects and styles, the collection brings together the following: studio portraiture (family; infant, baby, child and youth; self-portraiture), landscape photography, tourist photography, colonial and government administration photographs, ethnographic and field photography, photography of transportation/railway construction (Canadian Pacific Railway), stereoscopic photography and documentary photography (including early natural history museum collections). Maynard produced ethnographic and field photography, of which one series (MS-3378) and one discreet item (MS-3378) has been included in this collection, is representative of a larger body of their well-known work and documentation of the life and lifeways of many First Nations and Indigenous communities primarily on Vancouver Island, around British Columbia and Alaska. There are a few examples of sun photography used in infant, baby, child and youth portraiture, as well as a reference to a work of Victorian era collage. A small number of works in the style of architectural photography are represented here, as are Maynard’s portfolio depicting naval or military themes. Hannah Maynard’s work in police photography is not represented in this collection.

Artistic works include experimental photographs attributed to Mrs. R. Maynard in her role as a photographic artist and consist of tableau vivants, photocollages, composite and montage works photo-sculptures and studio portraits using double and multiple exposure techniques. A small number of montage works marketed by Richard Maynard can also be found in this collection, as are references to studio portraits marketed by R. Maynard.

Print formats include mounted and unmounted prints and photograph albums. Mounted prints consist of cartes de visite, boudoir and cabinet cards, gem-sized prints and tintype miniature portraits. Negative formats consist primarily of glass plate negatives. There are also a small number of textual records found in albums including several business cards and a few seasonal greeting cards. There is also one instance of business stationary from Mrs. R. Maynard's Photographic Gallery present within the studio register.

Maynard (family)

Photograph album of the A.H. Maynard family

The file is a family photograph album with a black leather cover with a metal clasp containing 32 card mounted photographic prints, the bulk of which are a selection of individual and group portraits depicting several generations of the Maynard family, in particular the Albert H. Maynard and Adelaide M. Maynard (nee Graham) family. Many of the prints feature portraits of infants, children, youth and adult members of the Maynard family including Albert H. Maynard, his mother Hannah Maynard and his siblings Zela Maynard, Laura Lillian Maynard and Emma Maynard, as well as his wife Adelaide. Laura Lillian Maynard and baby Richard James Maynard appear frequently throughout the album, either in individual portraits or group portraits together or with mother and grandmother Hannah Maynard. The majority of the photographs are attributed to photographer Hannah Maynard of Mrs. R. Maynard’s Photographic Gallery but there are also works of other commercial photographers including Washington based “Peiser” (Seattle) represented here. The album includes popular Maynard family images that appear in other Maynard family albums.

My Automobile Trips / Lillian E Maynard

File consists of one family album containing a black leather cover with gold embossing on the cover and 91 photographic prints of various sizes adhered to forty-nine black album pages. Lillian E. Maynard’s life, family, and friends are documented through portrait and landscape photographs as well as newspaper clippings. Members of the Maynard family are depicted including Lillian’s brother Richard James Maynard; Katie Adelaide and her sons Albert, Robert, and Jack Walker; and unidentified infants, babies, children and adults. Landscapes include views of Saanich (Saanich Inlet, Island Highway Saanich Road, Little Cadboro Bay), Oak Bay (McNeill Bay, Willows Beach), Elk Lake, Jordon River, Cameron Lake, Colwood, Courtney, Sooke (Inner Sooke Harbour “Saseenos”) and Mount Baker. The album features a small number of Victoria tourist views including Belmont House at the Parliament buildings, Dunsmuir Castle, Butchart Gardens, Victoria Harbour, and the C.P.R. docks (1927). Near the end of the album are three of Hannah and Richard Maynard’s photographs, including Richard's award-winning landscape view, "The Arm", and two of Hannah’s annual “Gems of British Columbia" composite photographs. The album concludes with a newspaper article "Carry a Camera It Pays, says Fair Motorist" from The Daily Colonist, April 1919. It contains news coverage of a car crash involving Lillian and Richard and features images of the crash, Lillian, and her Kodak camera. In the article, she is credited for documenting the incident and later using the photographic evidence in court.

Maynard, Lillian Elizabeth

Photograph album of the Maynard family

File is a large family photograph album with a yellow-green velour cover containing 69 card mounted photographic prints, the bulk of which are studio portraits that document numerous individuals and families, some of whom are members of the Maynard family. Many of the photographs are attributed to photographer Hannah Maynard of Mrs. R. Maynard’s Photographic Gallery, but there are also works of other commercial photographers and photographic studios including those identified as Washington based “Roberts & Kautz” and “Peiser’s Art Studio”/“Theo E. Peiser”(Seattle), as well as “A L. Jackson” (Tacoma). There are also works from photographers: “[Will] A. Peek” (Yaquina, Oregon), “Taber” (San Francisco) and photographic businesses “R. & H. O’Hara Photographers, BookSellers, Insurance Agents & c.,” (Bowmanville, Ontario). The album includes popular Maynard family images that appear in other Maynard family albums.

Photograph album of Mrs. A. H. Maynard, 1872 - 1892

File is a family carte de visite album with a brown leather cover and metal clasps containing photographic prints, the bulk of which are card-mounted studio portraits that document the Maynard family, in particular the Albert Hatherly Maynard and Adelaide Maynard (nee Graham) family. The album is attributed to Adelaide Maynard, and appears to have been a gift to Adelaide Graham (1859-1892) from Albert Maynard (1857-1934). Photographs depict Adelaide Maynard’s domestic life before and after her marriage through primarily portraits, as well as a few snapshots and other materials that document her circle of family and friends of her and her husband, her role as a wife and a mother, and the domestic life of a Victorian family. The bulk of the photographs are credited to photographer Mrs. R. Maynard (1834-1918) but there are also works of other commercial photographers including Ontario based W.A. Cooper and JAS. Egan’s New Photographic & Portrait Gallery. The album includes popular Maynard family images that appear in other Maynard family albums.

The family album consists of 100 photographic prints, including sepia toned albumen carte de visites, plus other portrait forms such as tintype miniature portraits inserted in twenty-five pages. There are annotations found on some album pages and also on the verso of prints. Information largely consists of names and occasionally the age of the subject or the price of the print. There does not appear to be dates or associated photograph numbers for the original negatives present on album pages or prints. Mounted cards, carte de visites, often contain imprints on the verso noting the name and studio location. On nine of the pages prints appear to have been removed. There are also several prints housed loose within the album. Other materials include a few hand-painted photographs, a business card and several seasonal greeting cards which do not contain photographs.

A.H. Maynard family members are represented in individual and group studio photographs. The album includes individual and group portraits of Albert Hatherly and Adelaide Maynard, several mother and child portraits of Mrs. A. Maynard and child, as well as individual portraits of their infant children including John Ridgemen Maynard (b.1879). The album also includes portraits containing the following names in their associated captions: "Bob Liddell," "Mary Vipond," "Jack Kirkup," "G Anderson," "Frank Graham," and "J. Carter." Some of these captions refer to photographs which are missing from the album.

Likenesses of Albert Maynard’s mother (Hannah Maynard) and his siblings including Emma Maynard (1859 or 1860-1893), Zela Maynard (1854-1913), and Laura Lillian “Lillie” Maynard (1867-1883) are also featured frequently in individual and group portraits sometimes depicting domestic scenes and activities. Arthur S. Rappertie (1854?-1923) who worked for the Maynards in the 1870s to early 1900s is also present here. There are a number of unidentified prints of infants, babies, children and adults, including a number of male sitters, which may or may not relate to the Maynard family. There are several non-studio images, family photographs taken on excursions at the beach, at a group picnic, and outside a residence.

Portrait styles reflected in the album include headshots, side profiles, as well as mid and full-length likenesses that employ a variety of studio props. Several portraits of the Maynard children depict Mrs. R. Maynard’s use of side lighting techniques. Child and baby portraits, as well as those of toy dolls present in the album, are similar portrayals than those featured in Hannah Maynard’s annual “Gems of British Columbia" series of portrait montages of the 1880s and 1890s.

There are also portraits of other individuals and objects. These include commercial cartes of “Effie German,” as well as a number of portraits of children’s dolls including a tintype with the annotation “Mifs M.A. Morton” on the verso of the print. There is a business card of James F. Macdonald, the husband of Emma Maynard. The album concludes with two New Year's greeting cards: one addressed to A. H. Maynard and the other Mrs. Albert H. Maynard.

Maynard, Adelaide M.

Studio register of Mrs. R. Maynard's Photographic Gallery, 1891-1899

Item consists of one studio register created by Mrs. R. Maynard’s Photographic Gallery that documents client orders from 1891 to 1899 and represents studio-based business transactions over a ten year period. It consists of 248 pages and contains entries for negative numbers 1025 to 6240. The record represents over 5,000 customer entries, likely referring to portrait orders fulfilled at several different locations of the Maynard Studio. Also included within the pages of the register is a small number of textual documents that refer to customer requests for non-portrait photographs that appear to have been furnished through the photographic studio. The author of the register appears to be either Mrs. R. Maynard or Arthur S. Rappertie, an employee of Hannah Maynard.

During this period, the studio was located at two different locations in Victoria, British Columbia. From 1874 to 1892, the studio was located on Douglas and Johnson Streets. In 1888, the studio is described in the publication The New West (Winnipeg) as having: “… superior facilities for executing all orders in the promptest and most satisfactory manner…” In 1892 until 1912, the studio was relocated 41 Pandora Avenue (renumbered to 717 Pandora ca. 1907). Many of Hannah Maynard's photographs after this date bear the address "41 1/2 Pandora Avenue near Douglas Street. Several employees worked for the studio throughout its existence. It is estimated that Arthur S. Rappertie (1854?-1923) worked for Hannah Maynard in the 1870s to early 1900s as either her assistant or photographer. Nicholas Herman Hendricks (1869-1946) was also employed by Hannah Maynard for a period. The signatures of both Mrs. R. Maynard and A.S. Rappertie are handwritten within the first initial pages of the studio register. The record does not note the corresponding Maynard Studio address alongside client entries, however orders are dated by the references to the year of the transaction, a date which appears at the top of selected register pages throughout the record.

By the 1890s, Mrs. R. Maynard’s Photographic Gallery already been a creator of conventional portraits in the popular carte de visite format and capturing the likenesses of gold miners and sailors, as well as Indigenous people whose studio portraits were commercially popular in and around Victoria during the early 1860s and 1870s. Children and family portraits were also a unique market provided for by the Maynard Studio, with photographic products including miniature portraits and composite images. In the period between 1891 and 1899, Hannah Maynard was producing experimental photographic works, including the "Gems of British Columbia" series of composite photographs. The montage works featured selected portraits of children and babies, largely Anglo-European subjects as well as a number of Chinese clients and Black families, photographed throughout the year were produced and sent as New Year's greeting cards to clients from 1881 until about 1895. In the 1890s, the studio facilitated the photographing of mugshots for prisoners for several years, when Hannah Maynard became the official photographer for the Victoria city police in 1897. Data on photographic orders noted in this record consists of date of order, number of negative, size and style of portrait (the bulk of which are carte de visites), quantity and price paid, and sometimes specific customization instructions of photographs ordered, as well as shipping information.

Mrs. R. Maynard’s Photographic Gallery clientele included the spectrum of the Victoria population including notable members of Victorian colonial society, temporary visitors, members of the navy, as well as pioneering Anglo-European, Indigenous, Black (including African American and Caribbean families) and Chinese individuals, families and communities. Client information frequently contained within register entries includes names, place of residence, family relationships, and occasionally identifiers for race or ethnicity for clients not perceived as Anglo-European. Customer names recorded within the approximately 5,000 register entries range from “Mrs. Bossi” and “Mr. Powell” to “Mrs. Alexander and 2 children (Clifford and Mildred Alexander),” “Tie Sue, Chinamen,” and “A Japanese, J Adachi,” to “Chief Sheppard and family,” and “George Alexander” of the HMS Ship Nymphe. Some clients appear multiple times throughout the record. In addition, the initials “CM” and "CL" repeat frequently and appear to relate to clients perceived to be of Chinese or Asian heritage (for examples see “CM Lee Hoo” on register page number 50, “6 C.M. Ah Hoye” on register page number 79 and “CM & C Lady” on register page number 93. Not all given and family names are recorded, as in the case of many clients perceived to be of Chinese heritage, whose entries are generic and general terms such as “Chinamen.” Stated places of residence for the Maynard Studio clientele represented in this record range across British Columbia from in and around Victoria, around South Vancouver Island (locations such as Sidney, Nanaimo, Chemainus and Comox), Salts Spring Island, Haida Gwaii (including Alert Bay), and on the mainland (including Vancouver and Lytton). The register also documents the orders of portrait clients with residences noted as at or near the naval base in the neighbouring community of Esquimalt. Locations such as the dockyard, naval yard or barracks appear listed in the record, as well as the names of British warships that visited the base not limited to: Egeria, Leander, Icarus, Imperieuse, Pheasant and Wild Swan. Many of these client entries are located near the rear of the register.

During the 1870s and 1880s, Hannah and her husband, Richard Maynard, took several working trips, and some they took together where they both practiced landscape photography. This included trips to Vancouver Island, Haida Gwaii (then referred to as the Queen Charlotte Islands) and to Banff, Alberta. She used landscape views as well as studio portraits as source material for composite works, such as the blended “documentary” image of a field photograph depicting a view of community village scene and a studio portrait of an Indigenous women. In the early 1900s, Hannah Maynard supplied ethnographic documentary photographs of Indigenous people of B.C.'s Northwest Coast to the Peabody Museum of Archaeology and Ethnology at Harvard in the United States. In addition to the recorded customer transactions for portraits relating to negative numbers 1025 to 6240, there are several other textual documents found inserted throughout the pages of the register that appear to refer to non-portrait photographs orders furnished through the Maynard Studio. One order handwritten on an excerpt of stationary from the final location of Mrs. R. Maynard’s Photographic Studio on Pandora Street, contains the name and location of G.W. Lilly and Westholme, B.C. and lists the names of several British warships (Pheasant, Imperieuse, Icarus and Wild Swan). Another undated note addressed to Dr. Dorsey at the Field Columbia Museum in Chicago lists a small number of general descriptions noting field and landscape photographs described as depicting Indigenous lifeways and cultural material from communities on the mainland of British Columbia including Bella Coola and Knight Inlet. Finally, located near the beginning of the register there is a single record of correspondence written on The Colonist letterhead between F.A. Harrison and H. Maynard dated March 3rd, 1900 and referring to the return of photographs loaned in 1897.

Mrs. R. Maynard’s Photographic Gallery

Colonial administration field photographs of Richard Maynard (Department of Indian Affairs tours of inspection)

This series consists of 312 field photographs representing a portion of views created during colonial government tours known as “visits of inspection” of Indigenous communities on Vancouver Island and mainland British Columbia in the early 1870s. The images were created by English photographer Richard Maynard during his accompaniment on and documentation of two colonial government tours of inspection of Indigenous communities conducted in 1873 and 1874. The photographs document elements of Indigenous life and lifeways relative to communities located around west and north coasts of Vancouver Island and the west coast of mainland British Columbia (during spring, summer and fall seasons), colonial government-to-Indigenous government relationships, as well as the perspectives of the colonial government administration regarding these communities in the early period after confederation. Amongst the earliest photographic works are those produced on the 1873 tour between May and June of 1873. The photographs were produced for the purposes of creating views of Indigenous lives and livihoods from different First Nations communities around Vancouver Island and parts of the interior of British Columbia to facilitate colonial government administration of Indigenous life and lifeways, and to expand the portfolio of commercial views available from Maynard photographers in the 1870s, and distribution of images of Indigenous life to public audiences. This series presents a portion of the ethnographic, landscape and tourist photography within the commercial portfolio of photographer Richard Maynard and Mrs. R. Maynard’s Photographic Gallery within the early segment of Richard Maynard’s career and the early commercial operations of the Maynard Studio.

In 1873 and 1874, Richard Maynard joined Superintendent of Indian Affairs, Israel Wood Powell (1836-1915) as the photographer on several colonial government tours that visited multiple First Nation communities within the regions of the Coast Salish, Nuu-chah-nulth, Kwakwaka’wakw, Heiltsuk and Nuxalk Nations around west and north coastal areas of Vancouver Island and parts of the west coast of British Columbia mainland. The government party travelled on the gunboat vessel of the Royal Navy the H.M.S. Boxer. The purpose of the Richard Maynard was described by I.W. Powell as “a Photographer who accompanied the Expedition for the purpose of taking views of Indian Camps and photographs of different Tribes etc…” and the activities of a typical inspection was described by Powell in one visitation near Friendly Cove, Nootka Sound, Vancouver Island (1874) as “photographing points of interest about [the] historic camp and inquiring into the general character and wants of its inhabitants.”

Among the First Nation communities visited along the tour of 1873, some were reported as:

• Kwakwaka'waka Nation community near Knight Inlet, a community/camp up the Sawatti river, British Columbia mainland (May 31, 1873) (See J-04533, J-04534 and J-04535).
Reported by I.W. Powell as “T'sawattie Knights Inlet.”

• Indigenous community in the Nuxalk nation region near Bella Coola close to Bentinck Arm, British Columbia mainland (June 6 or June 6-8th, 1873) (See J-04192, J-04171, J-04170)

• Indigenous community in the [Nuxalk nation] region near Bella Coola up the river, British Columbia mainland (June 6 or June 6-8th, 1873) (See J-04192, J-04171, J-04170)
Reported by I.W. Powell as previously identified as the “Village of the Rascals”

• Indigenous community near Takush Harbour, near Cape Caution, British Columbia mainland (June 9, 1873) (See J-04202, J-04204, J-04205, J-04206, J-04207 and J-04208).
Reported by I.W. Powell as meeting the "Qwoi-sil-lahs" at the "[Qwoi]-sil-lahs Camp" after proceeding to Cape Caution and Takush Harbour.

Among the First Nation communities visited along the tour of 1874, some were reported as:
• Nuu-chah-nulth nations of the southern region at Green Cove, Vancouver Island (September 7) (See J-04218, J-04219, J-04220, J-04221)
Reported in the media as the “Ohiet” [Huu-ay-aht] and “Owchucklisaht.”

• Nuu-chah-nulth nations of the central region near “Hecate passage north of Vargas Island” in Clayoquot Sound, Vancouver Island (September 8th 1874) (See J-04218, J-04219, J-04220, J-04221)
Reported in the media as the “Ahousahts” [Ahousaht] and the “Klahookwahts” [Tla—o-qui-aht].

• Nations in the area of the Nuu-chah-nulth (of the central region) near “Hecate passage north of Vargas Island” in Clayoquot Sound, Vancouver Island (September 9, 1874).
Reported in the media as 100 Indigenous people (“interviewed”) in 25 canoes.

• Indigenous community near Refuge Cove, British Columbia mainland (September 9, 1874) (See J-04222, J-04536)
Reported in the media as “where the Mahnohhahsahts live.”
Reported by Richard Maynard as “refuge Cove Indian name [Manhousesett].”

• Nuu-chah-nulth region and a community near Friendly Cove in the Nootka Sound on the west coast of Vancouver Island (September 10 and 11, 1874) (See J-04223, J-04224, J-04214 and J-04209)
Reported in the media as the “Movitchahts, known as the Nootkahs.
Reported by I.W. Powell as the Moo-cha-ahts.
Reported by I.W. Powell as meeting the “successor” of Chief “Maquinna.”

• Nuu-chah-nulth nations of the northern region at Queen’s Cove, Vancouver Island (September 11, 1874) (See J-04218, J-04219, J-04220, J-04221)
Reported in the media as the “Ehahtisaht” [Ehattesaht] and the “Noochatlaht” [Nuchatlaht].

• “Shushartie Bay,” Vancouver Island (September 13, 1874) (See J-04218, J-04219, J-04220, J-04221)
Reported in the media as the “Nawitee.”

• Kwakwaka'wakw nation region and community at Fort Rupert, Vancouver Island (September 14, 1874)

• Kwakwaka'wakw nation region and community at Alert Bay (Nimpkish River), Vancouver Island (September 14 and 15, 1874) (See J-04215, J-04200, J-04194, J-04195 and J-04217).

• Coast Salish community near Departure Bay on the Vancouver Island (September 16-17, 1874) (See J-04225)

Other photographers were also known to have accompanied colonial government officials on inspection tours before and after Richard Maynard’s tours between the period of the 1860s to the 1880s, often documenting the same Indigenous communities on Vancouver Island and mainland British Columbia over a twenty year period. This included Oregon Columbus Hastings with I.W. Powell on the H.M.S. Rocket in 1879, Edward Dossetter with I.W. Powell in 1881. Photographer Frederick Dally accompanied a tour on the H.M.S. Scout on an earlier voyage in1866, which appear to have created a record of many of the same communities visited by Richard Maynard in 1874. Earlier in 1860-1861, the Royal British Engineers photo documented pre-confederation Vancouver Island and mainland British Columbia as a part of surveying the Canada/U.S. boundry line.

The primary or adjunct purposes of these visits included law and order/policing, colonial government-to-Indigenous government relationships for a variety of purposes including observing communities for later negotiations on land ownership (e.g. reserves, fishing stations) and resource rights (e.g. fisheries and fishing rights) between colonial and Indigenous parties, as well as bestowing “staffs of authority.” In 1881, it also included artefact acquisition for collecting institutions such as the American Museum of Natural History in New York.

Published public accounts (along the route) were made of various tours in numerous colonial newspapers articles in publications such as The British Colonist and The Daily Standard, including for the tours of 1873 and 1874. On June 18, 1873, Richard Maynard is mentioned in The British Colonist in a description of an event leading to a commemorative group portrait between Indigenous and colonial government parties at a community near Knight Inlet (a "camp up the Sawatti river") as: “that able artist, R. Maynard.”

A selection of views taken by Richard Maynard were used in colonial government reports and communications after the inspections. Field photographs, consisting of ethnographic, landscape views and commemorative group photographs, were reported to have been included a list of 19 images (no.1 to no. 19) in a report submitted by Superintendent I.W. Powell entitled “British Columbia. Photographic Views taken during the Visitation of the Indian Commissioner [?] Indian tribes of East Coast of Vancouver Isld [sic] & on N W Coast of Mainland in Her Majesty’s Gun Vessel “Boxer” May & June 1873” in 1873. Richard Maynard and his general photographic purpose is mentioned as “a photographer who accompanied the Expedition for the purpose of taking views of Indian Camps, and photographs of different Tribes..”

Many of the works produced during these tours became part of the Maynard commercial portfolio and were promoted, reproduced, repurposed, distributed and otherwise used in a number of ways. Between the 1880 and 1890s, some of these field photographs were used in multi-image montage works that showcased a selection of the Maynard photographic portfolio of “Stereoscopic and Large Views of British Columbia and Vancouver Island for Sale” marketed by both Hannah and Richard Maynard. One montage work features a group photograph (J-04191) of Indigenous youth and adults taken at his land-based studio at a community near Takush Harbour and near Cape Caution on the British Columbia mainland during the tour of 1873, alongside photographs of churches, colonial buildings, railway engines on route, steamers and rivers and other views showcasing the Maynard representation of British Columbia and the Maynard photographic portfolio. Some photographs from these tours were later used as sources for visual accompaniments in local interest (Victoria, British Columbia) publications such as Victoria Illustrated. In one example, the Victoria Illustrated published in 1892 featured the illustration of a young Indigenous girl, a sketch created from one of Richard Maynard’s land-based studio portraits to complement the advertising of products of “Indian curios” at the business of John J. Hart of 43 Johnston Street. This version was published by Victoria Publishing Company.

As in the 1860s and 1870s, the Maynard’s continued production of popular imagery of Indigenous communities, people and lifeways for public consumption and collecting. Images, cropped or otherwise altered and manipulated from Richard’s photographic portfolio of the H.M.S. Boxer 1873 tour were produced and sold as cartes-de-visite, Negatives of land-based studio portraits of Indigenous sitters at a community near Takush Harbour and near Cape Caution on the British Columbia mainland again were edited and removed from their original context to market these cartes de visite, sometimes as composite images. In later years of the careers of the Maynard photographers, and as the Maynard Studio’s Indigenous photographic repertoire grew, Indigenous sitters from the land-based studio setting in 1873 were used to create fabricated images of Indigenous people and lifeways by removing the original field background and combining it with a different field background from another community or geolocation documented on other Maynard photographic tours around British Columbia and Alaska. These were marketed and sold as commercial cartes-de-visite. Near the end of the Maynard’s career and life, Hannah Maynard in early 1900s supplied and distributed some images produced on these H.M.S. Boxer tours along with other images from their portfolio of “Indigenous peoples of B.C.'s Northwest Coast” to the Peabody Museum of Archaeology and Ethnology at Harvard in the United States. These images included the popular portraits taken a community near Takush Harbour and near Cape Caution on the British Columbia mainland described as “3-Cape Caution Indians,” along with community village scenes described as “33-Bella Coola” and commemorative group photographs described as “17 -500 Indians at Knights Inlet.”

This series consists of 34 collodion and gelatin dry glass plate negatives in 3.25x 4.5, 4.5 x 7.25, 5x5, 5x7, 5x7.5, 5x8 and 8x10 inch sized glass plates. Many photographs are stereographs, as well as small and large negatives.

Photographic images consist of:

• Documentary group portraits of Indigenous and colonial government representatives on board the H.M.S. Boxer or at specific destinations visited;
• Ethnographic individual and group portraits at First Nation communities;
• Views of scenes or sites at Indigenous settlements, villages or other natural resource gathering destinations;
• Landscape views of destinations around Vancouver Island and the B.C. mainland;
• Documentation of the H.M.S Boxer anchored at locations on the tours.

Photographs consist of both unmanipulated negatives and manipulated negatives. Of the several manipulated negatives, the editing or reducing the view of items of material cultural (e.g. sections of carved and painted poles at settlement/village sites, see J-04534), landscape (e.g. manipulation or removal of sky, mountain or forest landscape at settlement/village sites, J-04534) or editing of other information (e.g. scratched emulsion in the regions depicting the faces of people in the image, see J-04216) is visible.

In some instances, negatives contain photograph numbers scratched on the surface of the plates. Some have multiple numbers inscribed. In some instances, one and two-digit numbers are presumed to be the photographer's original negative numbers, while other numbers (e.g. one, two or three digit numbers) are suspected to be those assigned to images during the course of facilitating their distribution, use, reproduction or publication. For an example see J-04222, which has the number “7” etched into the plate, J-04213 containing "189," or J-04170 that has “14” etched into the surface of the plate. For photographs that contain typed captions located within the photographic image, see J-04180, which contains a caption with the following information: "Photo of Maynard's Boat Crew At Barclay Sound, V.I." Finally, there are labels (on paper or simply on adhesive tape) containing numbers or descriptive information frequently found adhered to plates. There appears to be multiple authors of these labels, some attributed to the [Provincial Library] and some attributed to an unknown creator.

Individuals documented in the photographs in this series include the officers and crew of the H.M.S. Boxer, Department of Indians Affairs Superintendent Israel Wood Powell (in 1873, 1874), along with other officials such as George Blenkinsop (in 1873), Magistrate A.F. Pemberton (1873), and Hamilton Moffatt (1873) . Indigenous government representatives including “Chief Wawkash” of Dzawadi/Tsawatti/Tsawadi/Knight Inlet (1873) and “Chief [Mantzie]” or “[Ilothkin]” near Cape Caution (1873) and described by Powell as the successor to “Chief Maquinna” near Friendly Cove in the Nootka Sound (1874) described by Richard Maynard. These individuals are depicted primarily in group portraits.

There are photographs taken of representatives from First Nations communities (individuals and groups) on board the H.M.S. Boxer during both the 1873 and 1874 tours. This may include: a) the peoples at the Nuu-chah-nulth nations of the southern region at Green Cove (September 7, 1874) reported in the media as the “Ohiet” [Huu-ay-aht] and “Owchucklisaht”; b) the peoples at the Nuu-chah-nulth nations of the central region near “Hecate passage north of Vargas Island” in Clayoquot Sound (September 8th 1874) reported in the media as the “Ahousahts” [Ahousaht] and the “Klahookwahts” [Tla—o-qui-aht] ; the peoples at the Nuu-chah-nulth nations of the northern region at Queen’s Cove (September 11, 1874) reported in the media as the “Ehahtisaht” [Ehattesaht] and the “Noochatlaht” [Nuchatlaht]; and/or d)the peoples in the region of “Shushartie Bay”(September 13, 1874) reported in the media as the “Nawitee” (see J-04218, J-04219, J-04220, J-04221). It also may include Indigenous government representatives including “Chief Wawkash” of Dzawadi/Tsawatti/Tsawadi/Knight Inlet (1873) (see J-04201 and J-04213, a stereograph) and “prisoner”(J-04203) near Dzawadi/Knight Inlet.

Of the photographs taken on board the H.M.S. Boxer or when visiting a First Nations community site, there are several that represent commemorative individual and group photographs depicting government-to-government relationships (Indigenous-colonial). Several images illustrate the presence and use of staffs/presentation staffs or a “staff of authority,” a symbol of the colonial government given to Indigenous leaders and representatives beginning with Governor Seymour in the 1860s. In the 1860s, Governor Seymour is reported by The British Columbian to have spoken on the significance and purpose of staffs: “The Queen has sent out handsome staffs for the best chiefs. I will distribute them during the course of the year to those who may render good service to the Government.” For examples, see J-04213, J-04170 and the related group portrait HP015892/G-05015.

Indigenous settlements or village sites are documented the spring, summer and fall seasons and depict Indigenous land and resource use in the period of 1873 and 1874. These may reflect Indigenous land and resource “reserves” created during the period prior to the early 1870s. Demographics, including presence of women, children and elder adults are depicted here. Visual information within these field photographs reflects the cultural heritage, including the traditional, cultural and ecological knowledge and information, of a number of First Nations in British Columbia. Information regarding traditional activities and lifeways include fishing and food harvesting practices, settlement or village site location and building architecture, social demographics, governance, amoung other cultural practices. There is also information relating to the designs, images, crafts and artistic styles present in objects representing transportation (canoes), technology (fishing weirs, fish traps), settlement or site features (community buildings, carved poles), dress (clothing, headwear, regalia, adornments), and objects for food harvesting and collection (baskets and basketry), and other material culture (woven mats).

There are also landscape views containing ecological information depicted at certain locations within the above mentioned sites around Vancouver Island and the mainland of British Columbia documented during the early 1870s.

Maynard, Richard

Indigenous studio portraits of Mrs. R. Maynard’s Photographic Gallery

The series consists predominantly of studio portraits of Indigenous people. The majority of the photographs were taken by Hannah Maynard in her studio, however some of the photographs are attributed to Frederick Dally and Carlo Gentile (and perhaps others). It is assumed that the Maynards later purchased and distributed these photographs as well. When known, notes are added at the item level.

The bulk of the photographs were produced by Maynard, Dally and Gentile for the purposes of creating and marketing commercial photographic products popular during the 1860s and 1870s in Victoria, and to a lesser extent for the purpose of fulfilling individual photographic orders of studio clientele in the late 1880s or 1890s. Many of these photographs were marketed as cartes de visites. The studio produced conventional portraits as well as composite photographs, which blended the subject of a portrait with landscape views of field photography.

Cultural groups are identified at the item level when known. This identification relies on identical versions of the photographs held within the Indigenous Collections and Repatriation department.

Maynard, Hannah (Hatherly)

John Corfield papers

John Frederick Corfield was born in 1884 in South Cowichan and died in Victoria in 1978. He pursued a number of different careers, including, draughtsman, salesman, and resort operator. During his lifetime, he operated the Deep Cove Resort (North Vancouver), Shoal Harbour Marine Service (Sidney), and the French Creek Lodge (Parksville).

Records include documents regarding his apprenticeship in San Francisco; army service in Palestine, 1917-1919; a letter from Robert Service, 1940; a letter to his brother Herbert from A.E. Robinson regarding the Corfield Athletic Club; and a Corfield farm ledger, 1883-1884. Photograph collection, mainly of Deep Cove (North Vancouver), Shoal Bay (Sidney) and Duncan area, transferred to Visual Records accession 197905-17.

Published material transferred to the BC Archives library: "Sub-division of Corfield Farm, Cowichan Bay, Vancouver Island" (16 pages) Rotary Club of Vancouver, [Bulletin], number 42, 18 Feb 1921 Mutter, Jean, "Mud-Pup : a sequence in light verse" printed by Diggon-Hibben, Victoria, BC (2 copies) Lynn Valley Lodge number 122, Lynn Creek, BC, A.F. and A.M., B.C.R. (Announcement of meeting], 31 Aug 1945.

Esquimalt and Nanaimo Railway belt land conveyance register

  • GR-4090
  • Series
  • 1886-1907

This series consists of one volume recording land use and alienation in the Esquimalt and Nanaimo Railway belt (E&N Railway) from 1886-1907. This area of land was transferred to the Railway from the Canadian government. After the completion of the railway in 1886 some land was conveyed or sold off to settlers. The volume documents patents issued by the Dominion government, preemption conveyances issued by the E&N Railway Co., conveyances of land not pre-empted. Some records also relate to the conveyance of mineral or subsurface rights.

The records related to land in the entire railway belt which covered most of south eastern Vancouver Island, including the following land districts: Alberni, Cedar, Chemainus, Comiaken, Comox, Cranberry, Cowichan, Ladysmith, Mountain, Nanoose, Newcastle, Oyster, Quamichan, Shawnigan, Somenos, Wellington and others.

The creator of this volume is unclear, but estimated to be the Department of Lands and Works.

British Columbia. Dept. of Lands and Works

Beautiful British Columbia : 1952 version

The item is a travelogue film print. Shows scenery and attractions of British Columbia, including resorts, sports and historical spots in Victoria and Vancouver, as well as scenes from the Cariboo, the Okanagan Valley, Vancouver Island and the Kootenays.

Campbell River Forest District operational records

  • GR-4087
  • Series
  • 1990-2001

This series consists of a variety of operational records created by the Campbell River Forest District, a division of the Vancouver Forest Region, from 1990-2001. This includes land and resource management records, range tenures, and procedure files.

The series includes the following types of records:

Records relating to Land and Resource Management Plans (LRMP) consider all resource values within a given area of land. This area of land can consist of a TSA, a forest district, or other areas as designated. Each plan is prepared by an Interagency Planning Team in consultation with the public. These plans can be further subdivided into resource units and resource management zones. The participants in the planning process may build scenarios that include a set of resource management objectives and strategies both for the entire planning area and for each of the smaller units it contains. This primary includes the development, monitoring and review and amendment of plans for specific areas, and input from the public. The series includes terms of reference for the establishment of LRMPs.

Records relating to Local Resource Use Plans (LRUPs) to resolve resource use conflicts in specific areas at the local level. Includes records relating to data concerning a specific area - usually a watershed or other distinct resource management unit.

Utilization records regard the guidelines followed by the Ministry of Forests concerning the harvesting of timber
and the resulting affects on fish habitat. Includes guidelines, audits of licensees to ensure compliance with
guidelines, action/assessment plans.

The series also includes one district inventory program file and a range tenure file. There are also procedures related to engineering, road damage, forest service roads, district program planning, nurseries silviculture obligations and silviculture treatments.

The ministries responsible for creating these records, and the years that they were responsible, are:
Ministry of Forests (1988-2005)

The records were classified as 12380-25, 12440-20, 12600-20, 15700-20, 19910-20, plus several procedure files ending in the secondary "-02" in the Forest Operational Records Classification System (ORCS).

British Columbia. Campbell River Forest District

South Island Forest District executive records

  • GR-4017
  • Series
  • 2000-2007

This series consists of executive correspondence, briefing notes and associated records created by the South Island Forest District for the years 2000-2007. Correspondence may be replying to letters from other government bodies, other levels of government, First Nations, members of the public, and forestry companies. Records relate to a variety of subjects. Most regard concerns with logging in a particular area, forestry practices, and consultation with First Nations. Records regard forest use across southern Vancouver Island, including Clayoquot Sound.

Records are covered by the Administrative Records Classification System (ARCS) numbers 280-20 and 280-30.

British Columbia. South Island Forest District

Accounts of collecting trips

The file consists of a typed transcript of an account of collecting trips made to the West Coast of Vancouver Island and the Queen Charlotte Islands in the summers of 1945 and 1946 by California biologist Edward F. Ricketts. The account is a mixture of notes on marine life and descriptions of places visited, people met methods of travel, etc. Ricketts was a friend of John Steinbeck and this account was apparently intended for Steinbeck's use. (For a biography of Ricketts see Steinbeck's "Notes from the Sea of Cortez"). The transcript, which is entitled "Transcript of summer 1945 and 1946 notes based on trips to the outer shores, W. Coast Vanc. Is., Queen Charlottes etc. New Series Note Books 3 and 4" was presented to the Royal British Columbia Museum by Joel W. Hedgpeth of Santa Rosa, California. A copy of Hedgpeth's covering letter is included with the transcript.

The Hornby collection : The Broken Group

SUMMARY: "The Hornby Collection" is an anthology of plays, documentaries, interviews and selected fiction for radio -- all written, prepared and produced in British Columbia. "The Broken Group" is a sound documentary by Ann Pollock. Remote and uninhabited, the Broken Islands in Barkley Sound, off the West Coast of Vancouver Island, evoke memories of other times. Those involved in this program included Jo Thomas, Brian Whyte, David Hancock, Margaret Reynolds, Bob and Florrie Peel, Rob Tape, Peter Webster, Imbert Orchard, the [staff of the] Bamfield Marine Station, and CBC technicians Jose da Silva, Lars Eastholm, Bob Spence and Michael Nuss.

Island under the stars

The item consists of a workprint film in two reels. It is a travelogue about southern Vancouver Island, probably shot in the early 1970s.

Video compilation 2

The item is a video copy of amateur films made by John L. Getgood, mainly under the company name "Unit-One Productions".

  1. [SOUTHERN VANCOUVER ISLAND FOOTAGE]: Untitled; [early 1970s?]. Includes footage of Beacon Hill Park; the M.V. "Coho"; Victoria Airport; Pat Bay Highway; the waterfront; Mount Tolmie viewpoint; Goldstream Park; Brentwood ferry; Malahat summit; Duncan; the E&N Railway; Cowichan Bay?; Saanich Fair. These may be out-takes from ISLAND UNDER THE STARS, below.
  2. ST. MALO. Presumably about the French seaside city.
  3. ISLAND UNDER THE STARS: Travelogue about southern Vancouver Island; [early 1970s?]. For film elements, see AAAA6576.
  4. BEEKMAN - BANKER OF JACKSONVILLE: A film about banker Cornelius C. Beekman, a prominent figure in the history of Jacksonville, Oregon. [196-?]
  5. MAY ROBERTS: About May Roberts of Nanaimo. [197-?]

Leonard John Getgood fonds

  • PR-2345
  • Fonds
  • [ca. 1957-1977]

The fonds consists of films made in Victoria and southern Vancouver Island by Leonard John Getgood, as well as slides showing Pender Island and the Yellow Point Drama Group. The fonds also includes an oral history interview with May Roberts about the history of the Yellow Point Drama Group, and a copy of Roberts' booklet on that subject..

Getgood, Leonard John, 1916-2000

Provincial Museum photos of Jordan Meadows

  • GR-2531
  • Series
  • 1947-1948

The series consists of photographs taken or acquired by George A. Hardy of the Provincial Museum in 1947 and 1948, in order to produce "A report on a study of Jordan Meadows, Vancouver Island." The Jordon Meadows valley is on Southern Vancouver Island between Jordan River and Shawnigan Lake. This report was published as part of the Provincial Museum's annual report for 1948 and contains reproductions of eight of the photographs.

The photographs consist of 21 negatives and 27 prints (accession 198206-046), mostly taken by Hardy during his 1947 and 1948 field trips to document the natural landscape of Jordan Meadows. All but two of the negatives have accompanying prints. Approximately six of the prints were copied from photographs loaned to Hardy by Mrs. C. Bannerman (née Cis Weeks, one of the early settler family Weeks that settled in the Jordan Meadows valley). The photographs contain images of the natural topography and foliage of the valley, as well as photographs of the Weeks family home and the earlier cabin. In addition there are two notecards containing a rough timeline of activity in the Jordan Meadows area, probably compiled by Hardy during his research.

There are also six glass lantern slides made from the negatives, possibly intended for an illustrated lecture (accession 198203-106). These slides mainly show the old cabin and area.

British Columbia. Provincial Museum of Natural History and Anthropology

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