Collection PR-1259 - Maynard family collection

Clam bake at Gordon Head Studio register of Mrs. R. Maynard's Photographic Gallery, 1891 - 1899 Photographic View Album by R. Maynard, Artist Photograph album of Mrs. A. H. Maynard, 1872 - 1892 Album of Laura Lillian Maynard Harry MacDonald as Santa; Victoria City Police Christmas party. The B.D. Croft home at 2565 Graham Street, Victoria; the Croft family residence from 1935 to 1949. Photograph album of Mrs. R. Maynard’s Photographic Gallery Photograph album of the Maynard family Photograph album of the Maynard family Photograph album of the Maynard family Natural history collection of the Provincial Museum Natural history collection of the Provincial Museum Natural history collection of the Provincial Museum Natural history collection of the Provincial Museum Natural history collection of the Provincial Museum Natural history collection of the Provincial Museum Natural history collection of the Provincial Museum Natural history collection of the Provincial Museum Natural history collection of the Provincial Museum Natural history collection of the Provincial Museum Natural history collection of the Provincial Museum Natural history collection of the Provincial Museum Natural history collection of the Provincial Museum Natural history collection of the Provincial Museum Natural history collection of the Provincial Museum Natural history collection of the Provincial Museum Natural history collection of the Provincial Museum Natural history collection of the Provincial Museum Natural history collection of the Provincial Museum
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Title and statement of responsibility area

Title proper

Maynard family collection

General material designation

  • graphic material
  • textual record
  • multiple media

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Other title information

Title statements of responsibility

Title notes

  • Source of title proper: Title based on the contents of the collection.
  • Variations in title: Maynard family fonds

Level of description

Collection

Reference code

PR-1259

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Edition statement

Edition statement of responsibility

Class of material specific details area

Statement of scale (cartographic)

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Statement of scale (architectural)

Issuing jurisdiction and denomination (philatelic)

Dates of creation area

Date(s)

  • ca. 1862-1926 (Creation)
    Creator
    Maynard (family)

Physical description area

Physical description

Includes 772 photographs, 8 photographic albums and 28 cm of textual materials.

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Archival description area

Name of creator

(1832-1934)

Biographical history

The Maynard family consisted of Hannah Hatherly Maynard (1834-1918), Richard Maynard (1832-1907), their children and grandchildren.

Hannah Hatherly was a well-known photographer, photographic artist and business owner originally from Cornwall, England. She ran a successful commercial photography business, Mrs. R. Maynard’s Photographic Gallery (1862? – 1912) in Victoria on Vancouver Island, a business that was in operation for 50 years. Richard Maynard was a well-known British Columbia photographer, prospector, and business owner originally from Cornwall, England also based in Victoria, British Columbia. Hannah and Richard married in 1852 in England and they immigrated to Bowmanville (Ontario). Hannah and Richard had several children in Bowmanville and later in Victoria.

The Maynards lived first in Bowmanville then the family moved to Victoria in 1862. It is believed Hannah Maynard opened Mrs. R. Maynard’s Photographic Gallery that same year. Richard Maynard followed his prospecting enterprises on the mainland before and after the family’s move to Victoria. He later settled and opened up his own business there. Richard and Hannah Maynard remained in Victoria throughout their lives, though they both travelled extensively including British Columba and the United States through their work as photographers. The Maynards created an extensive documentary record capturing some of the earliest views and portraits of British Columbia in the early decades post Confederation.
The Maynards had several children. Those who survived past childhood and early adulthood included George Maynard (1852-1926 or 1927), Albert Hatherly Maynard (1857-1934) and Zela Maynard (1854-1913). Several of their children died young, including Laura Lillian Maynard (1867-1883) who died at age 16 and Emma Maynard (1859 or 1860-1893) who died while in her thirties.

George Maynard married Mary Elizabeth Davies in 1872 and had a number of children. Albert Hatherly Maynard married Adelaide Graham in 1878 and had children including daughters Mabel Price Maynard (b.1880), Lillie Elizabeth (b.1884) and sons John Ridgemen Maynard (b.1879) and Richard James Maynard (b. 1881). Adelaide Maynard (nee Graham) passed away in 1897. Albert remarried to widower Violet Mabel Graham in 1914. Emma Maynard married James F. Macdonald in 1879 and had three children including Harry Hatherly MacDonald, Maynard Macdonald and Albert James Macdonald. Zela Maynard married W.H. Smith in 1879 and had several children.
The Maynard children are closely linked to both the Maynard photographic studio business, Mrs. R. Maynard’s Photographic Gallery, and Richard Maynard’s business.

Richard Maynard, known for his field and landscape photography, made one of his early work-related excursions to Barkerville with his son Albert Maynard in 1868. In the census records of 1881, Emma Maynard is listed as a photographer. Frequently family members have featured in Hannah Maynard’s studio portraits as well as her more experimental and autobiographical works, tableaux vivants, which employ double and multiple exposure techniques along with the techniques of photo-sculpture. Featured family members include daughters Emma Macdonald (nee Maynard) and Laura Lillian Maynard, as well as Emma’s sons Harry Hatherly MacDonald and Maynard Macdonald. Upon Mr. R. Maynard’s retirement in the late 1890s, Albert took on the role of general manager of his father’s business as well as taking over management of the photographic stock. After the death of Hannah Maynard, Albert was the executor of his mother’s will.

Several of the Maynard children and grandchildren ran successful businesses, including commercial photographic related establishments. Albert Maynard continued on as successor to R. Maynard and operated his own photographic business. Maynard Macdonald operated a photographic business, Maynard F. Macdonald & Son Commercial Photographers in Victoria. At one point George Maynard and his sons, Albert J. and George H. Jr. operated the Victoria-based auction and appraisal company Maynard & Sons.

Richard and Hannah Maynard died in 1907 and 1918, respectively. Their second son Albert Hatherly Maynard died in 1934.

Custodial history

The majority of materials were donated to or purchased by the BC Archives or the Provincial Museum by or from members of the Maynard family between ca.1890 and 1933, including Mrs. R. Maynard and Albert H. Maynard. One of the earliest items is an album that appears to have been presented to the Provincial museum by Mrs. R. Maynard in 1890. Several items in this collection were found in the Visual Records unit between the 1970s and the 1990s, and later in the 2010s. The bulk of these materials are studio or family photograph albums. Finally, some family materials were acquired by the Visual Records unit as reproductions of original prints and albums between 1979 and 1980.

Scope and content

The collection consists of family records, chiefly photographs, attributed to the Maynard family of Victoria, British Columbia. Members of the Maynard family include well-known pioneer photographers Hannah Hatherly Maynard (1834-1918) and Richard Maynard (1832-1907), as well as their son Albert Hatherly Maynard (1854-1934). It includes several 19th and 20th century family albums documenting several generations of the Maynard family through Victorian era studio portraiture and informal snapshots. There are several family albums of the Albert Hatherly Maynard family, including his wife Adelaide M. Graham (1859-1892) and their daughter Lillian Elizabeth Maynard (1884-1966).

The collection also includes a number of business records attributed to Mrs. R. Maynard's Photographic Gallery (1862?-1912), a successful commercial photography business based in Fort Victoria in the Colony of Vancouver Island (now the city of Victoria in the province of British Columbia). Mrs. R. Maynard's Photographic Gallery is believed to have been opened by Hannah Maynard and both produced and marketed photographic products attributed to Mrs. Maynard, her husband Richard Maynard, along with the works of other photographers. Maynard Studio records include photographic negatives of studio portraits predominately from the 1860s and 1870s, as well as a range of items from the 1880s and 1890s. These materials include a sample album containing a portfolio of studio portraits and experimental works, a photographic view album attributed to Richard Maynard, photographic negatives of experimental works relating to Richard and Hannah Maynard photographic works (e.g. photocollages, Maynard autobiographical composite works, multi-image montages featuring landscape and field photography), and a handwritten studio register representing Maynard Studio client records.

Photographic negatives from the 1860s and 1870s consist of studio portraits of Indigenous sitters and clients attributed to Hannah Maynard, as well as early photographers Charles Gentile and Frederick Dally. The sample album features a range of infant, baby, child and youth portraiture, a unique market the Maynard Studio provided for, as well as more experimental works attributed to Mrs. R. Maynard in her role as a photographic artist. A small number of photo-sculpture and "Gems of British Columbia" works demonstrating photographic techniques such as composite and cut-and-paste montage imagery are also included in the portfolio. Likenesses depict Maynard Studio clients, primarily Anglo-European sitters as well as a small number of clients from Chinese and Black pioneer families. Studio portraits attributed to Mrs. Maynard and Mrs. R. Maynard's Photographic Gallery are also included in many of the Maynard family albums within family records. The photographic view album attributed to Richard Maynard presents field photographs, primarily landscape views, the bulk of which document scenes across the coast and interior of British Columbia. It contains many images likely produced during photographic tours the Maynards conducted to record the construction of the transcontinental railway (including the Canadian Pacific Railway) during the 1880s, an early post-confederation era and an intense period of change between colonial and Indigenous governments. Finally, the handwritten studio register reflects eight years of client records created during the last twenty years of Mrs. R. Maynard’s Photographic Gallery in the early-to-late 1890s. Information primarily consists of documentation relating to portrait orders, including some genealogical information on a spectrum of the Victoria area population at the end of the 19th century.

Lastly, there are a small number of records relating to the professional life of Albert Hatherly Maynard. At the end of 1886, the Provincial Museum (now known as the Royal BC Museum) opened with hundreds of natural history specimens in cases on display to the public. John Fannin joined the museum as curator earlier that year. By the 1890s, Albert H. Maynard worked as a taxidermist for the Museum and worked with Mr. Fannin. These records consist of photographs that document the natural history collection at the Provincial Museum in Victoria, British Columbia during the early years of its operation.

Notes area

Physical condition

In the case of family card photograph albums (e.g. MS-3362, MS-3363, MS-3364), many prints appear to have been removed, limiting the available information regarding the construction of the album including data on the display, sequencing and arrangements of portraits. Legacy description and cataloguing practices have included the removal of prints from the context of their source album. These items were generally described as individual prints and entered to the BC Archives Photograph Collection or its predecessor collections. In the case of photographic negatives, some of the photographs are damaged. There are broken or chipped negatives, negatives with cracking emulsion and negatives with partial missing emulsion. In many cases, some visual information in those items is not present or has been intentionally removed (e.g. in the case of manipulated/edited studio portraits).

Immediate source of acquisition

Arrangement

Language of material

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Location of originals

Availability of other formats

Modern copy prints are available for selected materials from this collection, some of which are also available in electronic form.

Available reference materials are reproductions from original glass plate negatives, masked or edited versions of a print, and legacy copy prints. Some of these reproductions include annotations. In many cases, there are duplicate reproductions also found in the BC Archives Photograph Collection which may have alternative descriptions, annotations or research notes. Please contact the BC Archives to determine the access status of these reference materials.

Restrictions on access

Some photographs may contain culturally sensitive information.

For conservation reasons, access provided to originals is limited. Researchers should consult online reference images prior to consulting the original. Please contact the BC Archives to determine the access status of these collection materials.

Terms governing use, reproduction, and publication

Some photographs may contain culturally sensitive information. Please contact the BC Archives to determine the use, reproduction, and publication status of collection materials.

Finding aids

Item descriptions are available for digitized materials.

Associated materials

Associated Materials
Newspaper articles from the Victoria Daily Colonist and The Daily Colonist relating to Richard and Hannah Maynard as well as Mrs. R. Maynard’s Photographic Gallery are held by the Victoria Times-Colonist. Digital access is available through the University of Victoria Libraries’ digital collection, “Daily Colonist Newspaper Collection.” Published articles from trade publications including the St. Louis Photographer/St. Louis and Canadian Photographer and The Practical Photographer relating to the works or Richard and Hannah Maynard’s are available. St. Louis and Canadian Photographer is held by the University of Victoria Libraries, University of British Columbia Library, and Simon Fraser University Library. The Practical Photographer is held by Library and Archives Canada. Articles from the Inland Sentinel relating to the work of Richard Maynard, including the availability of Canadian Pacific Railway photographs in Victoria and on the mainland in places such as Yale during the period of 1882, 1883 and 1885 are available. Inland Sentinel is held by the Thompson River University.

Other Maynard photographic studio portraits (related to Hannah Maynard’s Victoria city police mugshots created in the late 1890s to early 1900s) are held by the Victoria Police Historical Society. Digital access is available through the University of Victoria Libraries’ digital collection, “Victoria Police Department Charge Books.”

For carte de visite family photographic albums, featuring card mounted prints of individual and group portraits of Vancouver Island and British Columbian Black pioneer families, identified as the Alexander, Barnswell and Spotts families taken by Mrs. R. Maynard, see the Saanich Pioneer Society Archives.

Other Richard and Hannah Maynard photographic materials are held by the Royal British Columbia Museum Indigenous Collections and Repatriation department, the University of British Columbia Library in the Uno Langmann Family Collection of B.C. Photographs, and the Peabody Museum of Archaeology and Ethnology at Harvard University.

Related Materials
For materials relating to alternative print versions of photographic works by Richard and Hannah Maynard as well as Mrs. R. Maynard’s Photographic Gallery, see the BC Archives Photograph Collection. This collection includes original prints (including card mounted photographs) depicting the Maynard family as well as photographic works marketed by photographers Richard and Hannah Maynard and Mrs. R. Maynard’s Photographic Gallery that appear to be originally from the Newcombe Family fonds PR0356 (including MS-2964). In many cases, there are duplicate reproductions also found in the reference collection of Maynard photographs (see above section on the availability of other formats), which may have alternative descriptions, annotations or research notes.

For related materials, relating to Richard Maynard’s 1890 award received for the Victoria landscape view, "The Arm," see PR2365 Medals, Tokens and Numismatic Collection.

For related textual records, including diaries and notebooks pertaining to Hannah and Richard Maynard’s field photography and travels in British Columbia, see MS1077 Newcombe family papers. In addition, MS-2964 Photographs and sketches holds Hannah and Richard Maynard photographic prints in card mounted and unmounted formats. Described as Newcombe Family fonds, PR0356.

Related materials

Accruals

General note

Terminology has changed over the years in referring to Indigenous peoples. In this finding aid, First Nations, Aboriginal, and Indigenous are used to discuss the groups of British Columbia. Whenever possible the names specific to communities or culture groups are used. Names for associated language families are used when discussing communities or culture groups in broader terms, such as Coast Salish and Interior Salish. In some cases, outdated historical terms found in primary sources that may be considered offensive today, are supplied for contextual purposes. These terms are only used in this finding aid when in direct reference to a historical source and often are in records written about Indigenous people.

General note

The items (photograph albums, photographic prints, textual records) in this collection contain descriptive information from a variety of sources including creators, collectors and current and past BC Archives staff.

General note

Archives code(s): MS-3325; MS-3328; HP092055; J-00092; J-00093; J-00094; J-00095; J-00096; J-00097; J-00098; MS-2951; MS-3334; MS-3339; MS-3340; MS-3361; MS-3362; MS-3363; MS-3364; MS-3373; MS-3374; MS-3380;

General note

Accession number(s): MS-3325 originally accessioned as 742, later reaccessioned as 95-7328-1; MS-3328 originally accessioned as 198908-010, later reaccessioned as 95-7328-2; Accession number(s): J-00092 to J-00098 reaccessioned as part of accession 95-7328-3; MS-2951; 198107-058 (MS-3334); 198004-006 (MS-3339); 197910-001(MS-3340); MS-3361; MS-3362; MS-3363; MS-3364; MS-3373, MS-3374 and MS-3380 are part of accession 95-7328-3.

Accompanying material

Additional documentation (Maynard family research files) regarding the records in this collection are available. This material was created by current and past staff and researchers of BC Archives and includes biographical, contextual, and photographic research information. Please contact the BC Archives to determine the access status of these records.

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