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- graphic material
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- Source of title proper: Title based on the content of the item.
- Attributions and conjectures: The album is attributed to Mrs. R. Maynard’s Photographic Gallery.
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Dates of creation area
[ca. 1881-1892] (Creation)
- Mrs. R. Maynard’s Photographic Gallery
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Archival description area
Name of creator
Mrs. R. Maynard’s Photographic Gallery (1862? to 1912) was a commercial photography business based in Fort Victoria in the Colony of Vancouver Island (now the city of Victoria in the province of British Columbia). It is believed the studio opened around 1862 by photographer Hannah Hatherly Maynard (1834-1918). During the course of the business, the studio and the personal history of Hannah Maynard and her family are closely linked. Mrs. R. Maynard’s Photographic Gallery was in operation in Victoria for 50 years.
The studio had several locations over the course of its history, most notably operations at Douglas, Johnston and Pandora Streets in Victoria. Published references to it in the news media of the day cited several variants of the name including Mr. R. Maynard’s Gallery, Mrs. R. Maynard’s Photographic Studio, and Maynard’s Photographic Gallery. Over the course of the studio’s history, a number of imprints circulated on the backs of photographic works, sometimes multiple imprints per location. After the first location, Mrs. R. Maynard’s Photographic Gallery shared the premises with Richard Maynard’s boot and shoe business. Several employees worked for the studio over time. It is estimated that Arthur S. Rappertie (1854?-1923) worked for Hannah Maynard in the 1870s to early 1900s as either her assistant or photographer. Nicholas Herman Hendricks (1869-1946) was also employed by Hannah Maynard for a period. In addition, Maynard family members were involved with the family business including Albert Hatherly Maynard (1857-1934), son of Hannah and Richard Maynard, who eventually managed their photographic stock after their retirement and operated his own photographic business.
As a successful commercial business, it contained popular studio accessories in the tradition of 19th-century photographic portraiture and included pedestals, decorative chairs and tables, the floor tiling or carpets, painted scenic backdrops, pillars and curtains. Studio accessories were included or not to capture portraits and likenesses, depending on the sitter. Mrs. R. Maynard’s Photographic Gallery likely benefited from photographic equipment purchased at supply wholesalers like Anthony's in New York in the mid-1870s. In 1888 the studio is described in The New West (Winnipeg) as having: “… superior facilities for executing all orders in the promptest and most satisfactory manner…” In the later years, client records were kept. General information on client transactions and the portraits and photographs they ordered was recorded in a studio register representing clients over a ten year period from 1891-1899.
Mrs. R. Maynard’s Photographic Gallery provided a range of photographic subjects and in various formats. Works of several photographers were marketed and available including both the works of Hannah and her photographer husband Richard Maynard. In the early years the studio produced conventional portraits for clients in the popular format of the carte de visite, including likenesses of gold miners and sailors. The studio was also one of the most prolific creators of carte de visites of First Nations subjects which were popular in and around Victoria during the early 1860s and 1870s, which disseminated a certain depiction of First Nations and Indigenous people to public consumers. Children and family portraits were also a unique market provided for, with photographic products including miniature portraits and composite images in later years. In the 1890s, the studio facilitated the photographing of mugshots for prisoners for several years, when Hannah Maynard became the official photographer for the Victoria city police in 1897.
Mrs. R. Maynard’s Photographic Gallery clientele included the "upper echelons of Victoria society" including the Cridge, Douglas, O'Reilly, and Crease families, and members of the colonial government such as Victoria mayor John Grant. It also served the spectrum of the Victoria population including temporary visitors as well as pioneering Anglo-European, Indigenous, Black (including the Alexander and Spotts families) and Chinese individuals, families and communities.
In additional to Hannah’s conventional portraits, photographic "views" taken by Richard Maynard was available for order or purchase at the Maynard Studio and at other commercial operations in Victoria and on the mainland, in businesses such as the Kamloops Book Store, Pearson & Co’s Book and Stationary Store in Yale and W. Harrison in Yale. The studio benefited from the results of Richard’s government photographic jobs, such as those created through his work as the photographer accompanying government officials including Israel Wood Powell on his tours of inspection of Coast Salish and Interior Salish First Nation and Indigenous communities along the coast of Vancouver Island and on the mainland in the early 1870s, and during the construction of the transcontinental railway in the 1880s. The Gallery sold his landscape views, ethnographic portraits and documentary photography in various formats including stereographs. In addition, the works of other photographers were marketed including Victoria photographer Frederick Dally, since photographers often sold their original glass plate negatives to other photographers when they went out of business, along with other business practices of the period.
In addition to portraits and views, Mrs. R. Maynard’s Photographic Gallery also produced composite photographs and portrait montages, and other experimental works including photo sculptures as advertisements and to help develop client relations. The "Gems of British Columbia" series of portrait montages of selected children, largely Anglo-European subjects as well as a number of clients from Black and Chinese pioneer families, photographed throughout the year were sent as New Year's greeting cards to clients from 1881 until about 1895. In the 1880s these composite photographs, which sometimes incorporated photo sculptures, were published annually in the trade publication St. Louis Photographer (also known as St. Louis and Canadian Photographer). The publicity broadcasted the studio’s portfolio of child and baby portraiture as well as experimental photography styles across North America.
On September 29, 1912, the Victoria Daily Colonist announced Hannah Maynard’s retirement at the age of 78 and the closure of the Mrs. R. Maynard’s Photographic Gallery. She is quoted as saying “I think I can say with every confidence that we photographed everyone in the town at one time or another.” The Maynard Studio appears to have never reopened. Around 1910, Hannah Maynard appears to have disposed of her camera equipment to a photographer identified as “a Chinese photographer named Peter on Government Street.” Her will was executed by her son Albert H. Maynard, who continued on as successor to R. Maynard and operated his own photographic business.
Scope and content
The item is a studio photographic album with a black leather cover containing photographic prints, the bulk of which are a selection of sample studio portraits and less conventional works and is attributed to Mrs. R. Maynard’s Photographic Gallery. The album presents a portfolio of 19th century infant, baby, child and youth studio portraiture featuring a range of commercial options from the Maynard Studio. Photographic techniques represented include studio portraiture, composite and montage as well as other techniques. Photographic subjects include clients identified as being from the Harris, Redfern, Wallis and Gambie families, along with children of other families. Members of the Maynard family including Hannah Maynard, George Maynard (son of Hannah and Richard Maynard), Richard James Maynard (son of Albert H. Maynard), Harry and Maynard MacDonald (grandchildren of Hannah and Richard Maynard and children of daughter Emma Maynard) are also depicted in individual and group portraits. The bulk of the photographs are attributed to photographer Hannah Maynard (1834-1918).
The sample studio album consists of 122 photographic prints, seven of which are hand-toned, pasted onto thirty-two pages and on the inside of the front and back covers. This also includes the one loose print found in the album. The album design includes geometric shapes embossed into the front and back surfaces of album covers with some gold embellishments. The stamp of the Maynard Studio at “Cor. Douglas & Johnson Sts., Victoria, B.C” appears near the front of the studio album, under a portrait of Mrs. R. Maynard. The bulk of the photographic prints feature studio portraits of infants, children and youth, the majority of which appear to document sitters of Anglo-European ancestry. There are several composite images near the rear of the album that feature a broader selection of the young Maynard Studio clientele who appear to have been photographed throughout the year. There are annotations found on some album pages that identify the first and family names of some of the subjects captured in portraits. There are also the names of sitters or phrases written within the photographic image of some of the prints, including those featuring botanical themed designs and in other works. Many of the prints are not identified. There does not appear to be dates or associated photograph numbers for the original negatives present on album pages or prints. Many photographs have been pasted over other prints, some several times. Many of the prints are cut from their original size and presented in various edited shapes. There is one print found loose within the album.
The album is arranged in a manner that illustrates a range of portrait options for the consumer. Individual, as well as group portraits are included and displayed in sequences of two and four. Less conventional photographs, such as photographs representing photo-sculptures and composite works, appear throughout the album and juxtaposed to conventional 19th century Victorian studio portraiture. There is one full page spread dedicated to the “Statuary from Life” photo sculpture series near the middle of the album. There are several composite images near the rear of the album that present the annual “Gems of British Columbia" for the years of 1882 and 1883 as a double page spread. These “Gems” contain simple geometric designs and shapes less present in the “Gems” produced later in the decade and in the 1890s. Many of the studio prints of individual and group portraits reduced and edited in the “Gems” prints at the rear of the album are found in the preceding pages, such as the portrait of the child holding hay or the portrait of the baby (likely Richard James Maynard) surrounded by clouds featured in the “Gem” for 1883. The bust of the unidentified child of one of the photo sculptures is also featured in the “Gem” for 1882. The album concludes with a portrait of Richard James Maynard (son of Albert H. Maynard and grandson of Mr. and Mrs. R. Maynard), and a loose print of George Maynard (the eldest son of Richard and Hannah Maynard) on the final page.
Studio portrait styles reflected in the album include headshots, side profiles, as well as mid and full-length likenesses for individual children and groups. Compositions of multiple sitters include arrangements based on heights, similar poses and gestures and dress. A variety of studio sets and accessories are documented here. Some simple portraits include pedestals, decorative chairs and tables, the floor tiling or carpets and plain backdrops. Infants and babies are posed in prams, baskets, on cushions, seated in chairs or in fabric or furs. In some of the more elaborate likenesses there are painted scenic backdrops (some natural landscapes or garden settings), bikes and swings, dolls, animals (some real and some lifelike), pillars and curtains, as well as references to other works in the Maynard oeuvre (photo sculptures). The “Statuary from Life” photo sculpture series contains staged scenes using props (such as birds or a birdcage, plinths) and poses, clothing and costume (children are created to represent white sculptures) and minimal sets. There are a small number of portraits of unposed children.
Examples of mounting and framing techniques illustrate options for portraits which are alternative to display in photographic albums, such as in the prints of portraits in elaborate frames or other objects (such as painted horseshoes). Options for customized or personalized prints are also represented. There are a number of botanically inspired themes that include design motifs, either hand drawn or photographed, that frame the sitter or is incorporated into the composition of the image. Design motifs used in those photographs include fern leaves, flowers and petals, birds, clouds and sky, and other symbols from nature. Other commercial photographic products featured here, such as the portrait of the child in a design that bears resemblance to a ceramic bowl, suggest options for the adornment of domestic interiors. There are several images of children’s portraits superimposed on artist palettes.
Finally, along with the prints of the “Gems of British Columbia" for the years of 1882 and 1883, there are other designs present in the album that illustrate the Maynard Studio’s range of use of miniature portraits in montage works such images where multiple portraits are superimposed on an abalone shell or a jug.
Immediate source of acquisition
Language of material
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Location of originals
Availability of other formats
Selected photographic prints were made from this album in previous years and are available in electronic form.
In addition, black and white copy prints for selected works were made from this album and are available in the reference collection of Maynard photographs. For access, see the following archive/reference codes for “Statuary from Life” works: HP093368/F-05954 (busts of an unidentified child looking down), HP093369/ F-05955 (busts of an unidentified child looking to the side);
HP093370/ F-05957, HP093371/F-05956 (children posed holding a birdcage); HP093372/ F-05958, HP093373/ F-05959 (children posed holding a bird); HP093375/ F-05961 (baby in a shell). There are also other “Statuary from Life” works available, which are similar to but not represented in this album. See HP093682/F-06722 and HP093233/F-05052.
For modern copy prints studio portraits, see HP93374/F-05960 (boy and wolverine). Additional examples of studio portraits of infants, babies and children, similar to but not represented in this album, are available. See HP093186/F-05131, HP093188/F-05126, HP014338/A-05569, HP093674/F-06714, HP093675/F-06715, HP093216/F-05100 and HP073038/F-07573.
For modern copy prints of the “Gems of British Columbia" series, see HP093165 and HP093679 (for 1882) and HP0093185/F-05019 (for 1883).
For modern copy prints of studio portraits of children and babies superimposed onto objects, see HP093365/F-05951 (portrait of boy and dog superimposed over what appears as a ceramic plate) and HP093363/F-05949 and HP093364/F-05950 (children superimposed on artist palettes). There are also other related photographs, in-situ portraits of Hannah Maynard referenced by this portrait design and not represented in this album, available. See HP093157/F-06767.
For modern copy prints of multiple studio portraits of children and babies superimposed onto objects, see HP093366 (shells).
Available here are reproductions from original glass plate negatives, masked or edited versions of a print, and legacy copy prints. In many cases, there are duplicate reproductions also found in the BC Archives Photograph Collection, which may have alternative archivist supplied descriptions or research notes. Please contact the BC Archives to determine the access status of these reference materials.
Restrictions on access
There are no access restrictions.
For conservation reasons, access provided to original is limited. Researchers should consult the online reference image prior to consulting the original. Please contact the BC Archives to determine the access status of this record.
Terms governing use, reproduction, and publication
Published articles from trade publications including the St. Louis and Canadian Photographer relating to other works in Hannah Maynard’s “Gems of British Columbia" series for the year 1885 (November 1885 and September 1886) and 1887 (November 1888) are available. St. Louis and Canadian Photographer is held by the University of Victoria Libraries, University of British Columbia Library, and Simon Fraser University Library. Other titles such as The Practical Photographer also contains press and publicity for the “Gems" series (May 1894). The Practical Photographer is held by Library and Archives Canada.
For related carte de visite family photographic albums, featuring similar card mounted prints of individual and group portraits of Vancouver Island and British Columbian Black pioneer families, identified as the Alexander, Barnswell and Spotts families taken by Mrs. R. Maynard, see the Saanich Pioneer Society Archives.
Alternative print versions of selected Maynard Studio works featured in this album are available in the BC Archives Photograph Collection. Available here are original card mounted prints or reproductions from original glass plate negatives (masked or edited versions of a print). Card mounted print versions are available for the studio portrait of a baby illustrating circular framing techniques, see HP093232/F-05051. For modern copy prints taken from a glass plate negative of the “Gems of British Columbia" series, see HP093165 (1882); for a card mounted print of the “Gems of British Columbia" for 1882, see HP093679/F-06719. For a modern copy print of the “Gems of British Columbia" for 1883, see HP093185. Other reproductions of Maynard Studio works featured in this album available in this collection are legacy reproductions made from this album. In many cases, there are duplicate reproductions also found in the reference collection of Maynard photographs, which may have alternative archivist supplied descriptions, annotations or research notes. Please contact the BC Archives to determine the access status of these reference materials.
For reference materials containing other portraits and photographs of families featured in this album, including the Redfern and Harris families, see the BC Archives general files collection (“Gen files”). Family names can be located by surname and files include reproduction of photographs from a variety of original sources with links to internal image numbers (BC Archives archive codes and related reference codes). Many items are duplicates from the BC Archives Photograph Collection and other archival collections.
For textual records relating to photographic lists of individuals photographed by Hannah, Richard Maynard or the Maynard Studio, see MS 1077 Newcombe family papers (see file “A.H. Maynard, lists” in box 20, file 6 or reel A01755, vol 20, file 6). This file includes several pages of names listed on A. H. Maynard letterhead, produced during the 1910s. Numbered 1 through 8, lists includes names, sometimes references to family or organizational affiliations and often dates. Described as Newcombe Family fonds – PR-0356.
For alternative photographic print formats, including card mounted prints (carte de visite and cabinet cards) of individual and group portraits of babies, children, youth and adults, see MS-2964 Photographs and sketches (files 451 to 504, box 14 and 15). Card mounted prints of the “Gems of British Columbia" works for the years of 1880, 1882, 1883,1884, 1885, 1887, 1888, 1889, 1890,  and1893 are located here. The “Gems” for the years 1884 employ multiple miniature studio portraits of children and babies superimposed onto an artist palette, similar to the individual portraits on artist palettes featured in this album. There is also a card mounted version of the studio portrait of a baby illustrating circular framing techniques featured in this album (HP093232/F-05051). Described as PR-0356 Newcombe Family fonds.
Additional original card mounted prints for works in the “Gems of British Columbia" series can be found in various other private record collections. See the Todd, Gillespie family fonds (PR-2005) for the “Gem” for 1883 (HP#054838) featured in this studio album, and the annual “Gem” for 1887 (HP#054839). See also the Agnes Deans Cameron fonds (PR-1365) for the “Gem” for the year 1894, as well as works where miniature “gem” portraits of multiple baby and child portraits are superimposed onto other objects similar to the jug featured in this album, identified as the ‘Gem’ Begonia for 1892.
For Maynard albums containing alternative prints of the “Gems of British Columbia" for the year 1885, as well as an alternative version of the Gem Begonia for 1892, see PR-1259 Maynard family collection (MS-2951).
For albums that showcase the use of Maynard studio portraits in the context of a family carte de visite album, with information on display, sequencing and arrangement of portraits, see MS-3334 in this collection (PR-1259 Maynard family collection).
The "Gems of British Columbia" series features multiple individual portraits, produced throughout the year, of selected babies and children all compiled into a single montage work. “Gems” were sent as New Year's greeting cards to clients from 1881 until about 1895. Many of the "Gems of British Columbia” largely featured Anglo-European subjects as well as a number of clients from pioneer Black and Chinese families. In the 1880s these composite photographs, which sometimes incorporated photo sculptures, were published annually in the trade publication St. Louis Photographer (also known as St. Louis and Canadian Photographer).
The “Gem” for 1883 featured in this album includes the portrait of a child from the pioneering Spotts family. Located beside the left flag in the centre of the work, it is likely “Cecillia Spotts”. Several of the Spotts family children were also photographed by Hannah Maynard including “Percy Spotts.” The Alexander and likely Barnswell families, also appear to have been clients of the Maynard Studio and represent pioneer Black families of Vancouver Island and British Columbia.