Item MS-3364 - Photograph album of the Maynard family

Open original Digital object

Title and statement of responsibility area

Title proper

Photograph album of the Maynard family

General material designation

  • graphic material

Parallel title

Other title information

Title statements of responsibility

Title notes

  • Source of title proper: Title based on the content of the item.
  • Attributions and conjectures: The album is attributed to the Maynard family.

Level of description


Reference code


Edition area

Edition statement

Edition statement of responsibility

Class of material specific details area

Statement of scale (cartographic)

Statement of projection (cartographic)

Statement of coordinates (cartographic)

Statement of scale (architectural)

Issuing jurisdiction and denomination (philatelic)

Dates of creation area


  • [ca. 1874-1892] (Creation)

Physical description area

Physical description

1 album (121 photographs : b&w)

Publisher's series area

Title proper of publisher's series

Parallel titles of publisher's series

Other title information of publisher's series

Statement of responsibility relating to publisher's series

Numbering within publisher's series

Note on publisher's series

Archival description area

Name of creator


Custodial history

Found in Visual Records Department between June and August 1979.

Scope and content

The item is a large family photograph album (28cm x 23cm x 6cm) with a light brown leather cover and a metal clasp containing photographic prints, the bulk of which are card-mounted studio portraits that document several generations of the Maynard family. The album is attributed to the Maynard family. The album presents a portfolio of 19th century studio portraiture from Canada and England with many prints appearing to represent the works of photographer Mrs. R. Maynard and the Maynard Studio. Many of the photographs are attributed to photographer Hannah Maynard (1834-1918) but there are also works of other commercial photographers including those identified as “H Thorn” (Bude Haven), “E.W. Burnham Photo” (Cannington, Ontario), “Bradley & Ruloeson” and “J. Hawke” (Plymouth). The album includes popular Maynard family images that appear in other Maynard family albums.

The family album consists of 121 photographic prints, including 108 card mounted prints and nine tintypes, inserted onto twenty-one pages. Card mounted prints include cartes de visite and cabinet cards, as well as gem sized prints. The album design consists of geometric shapes on the front and back surfaces of album covers. Tintypes are housed in white sleeves within the pockets of the album. Some sleeves include embossed designs. Several of the card mounted prints and tintypes are hand-toned prints or hand painted. For an example, see the portrait of Lillian Maynard posed with a cat in the carte de visite format. There are annotations found on some pages that reflect first names, family names and/or nicknames next to some of portraits. The creator of these annotations is not known. Many of the prints are not identified. There does not appear to be dates or associated photograph numbers for the original negatives present on album pages or prints. There are five prints found loose within the album. There are 9 album pockets without photographs. Other materials found loose within the album include several simple cards bearing the text, “Mrs. R. Maynard” and a small folded purple envelope containing a tintype portrait of Hannah Maynard attributed to Lillie Maynard. The inscription on the envelope states: “Photographed by Lillie Maynard.” Photographic subjects include sitters identified as being from the Maynard, Bradshaw, Ridgeman and Rogers families, along with sitters of other unidentified families and individuals. Members of the Maynard family appear to include Hannah and Richard Maynard and their children (George, Albert Hatherly, Emma, Zela and Laura Lillian Maynard) and grandchildren (including John Ridgemen and Richard James Maynard) who are depicted in individual and group portraits. The children of Mr. and Mrs. Maynard and their families are also represented and include: Albert H Maynard and his children (including John Ridgemen and Richard James Maynard), Zela Maynard and likely her child.

The album begins with a full length portrait of Hannah Maynard and appears not to be one of the earliest images of the photographer featured in the album’s pages. There is one full page spread dedicated to Laura Lillian Maynard near the beginning of the album. Contents on this page represent several works in a sequence of photographs illustrating similar studio scenes (Laura and the washbasin or Laura posed with birds). Other works in that group of images are located throughout the album. A double page spread contains two cabinet cards of Maynard children in a studio scene with a scenic backdrop and hammock. A smaller, cropped, carte de visite version of one of these prints featuring Hannah and Richard Maynard’s grandson (Richard James Maynard) is located near the rear of the album. Cartes de visite bearing the imprint from “Thorn” are dispersed throughout the album. The small folded purple envelope containing a tintype portrait of Hannah Maynard, along with the cards bearing the text “Mrs. R. Maynard” are found loose next to the page containing tintype portrait of Hannah Maynard with an infant child. Two cartes de visite are sleeved in pockets on the same page as the portrait identified as “Sam Rogers.” One print depicts a group portrait that includes several Maynard women and Arthur S. Rappertie (a staff member to Mrs. R. Maynard’s Photographic Gallery or Hannah Maynard) and the other is an image of a domestic scene with some Maynard women gathered at a table reading. The album concludes with a portrait identified as “Lillie” [likely Laura Lillian Maynard] on the final page. This image and the sitter are featured in the studio background of other Maynard family group photographs, including a version of a group portrait sent to the trade publication St. Louis Photographer/St. Louis and Canadian Photographer in 1895. It is also used as a prop in some of the Maynard’s experimental studio works, such as the autobiographical tableau vivants attributed to Hannah Maynard that employ photo-sculptures and Maynard family members in these scenes.

Sitters range in age from an infant to an elderly woman. Many of the same sitters appear frequently throughout the album, including the Maynard children (Laura Lillian Maynard) and grandchildren (Lillian Elizabeth Maynard and Richard James Maynard ) and appear in different portraits. Likenesses range from portraits of infants, babies, children and youth, as well as adults. There appear to be several mother and child or father and child portraits, as well as individual and group photographs of adults.

Studio portrait styles reflected in the album include headshots, side profiles, as well as mid and full-length likenesses. The studio sets and accessories documented here primarily reflect a sparse studio design employing mainly flooring, curtains, simple furniture and plain backdrops. Some of same flooring is reflected across many of the prints which may be attributed to the first Maynard Studio. A small number of portraits contain scenic backdrops, some of which may to be attributed to the Maynard Studio, the Theatre Photographic Gallery or other photographic studios represented in this album. Props such as desks, chairs, pianos, books and flowers are present. In some portraits with young sitters, have dolls and animals that accompany them. Infants and babies are posed on cushions, seated in chairs or in fabric or furs. In portraits illustrating full length poses of sitters, individual women are frequently posed standing sideways and away from the camera which illustrates the female figure and mode of dress. Men in full length poses are often positioned facing the camera directly. There does not appear to be any occupational portraits present, however some photographic subjects are depicted in specific activities (reading, writing, posed with children or potentially spouses or relatives or standing beside specific props) that may suggest a particular real or desired: skill, pastime/pursuit, family or gender role, vocation or position in society. A portrait of one of the Maynard children (Laura Lillian Maynard in the series with the washbasin) depicts Mrs. R. Maynard’s use of mirrors in her portraiture techniques. Child and baby portraits, as well as those of toy dolls present in the album, are similar portrayals than those featured in Hannah Maynard’s annual “Gems of British Columbia" series of portrait montages of the 1880s and 1890s.

Notes area

Physical condition

The spine is damaged, deteriorating and album pages are partially detached from the binding. There are signs of deterioration (spotting) on some of the prints and surface dirt on some of the album pages. Some photographic prints are housed in pockets with tears. There are also several loose prints and other materials contained within album pages, causing the items to slip out when the item is handled. Many of the cartes de visite are tightly enclosed in album pages which may limit access to photographer and studio imprints featured on the verso of these items.

Immediate source of acquisition


Language of material

Script of material

Location of originals

Availability of other formats

Selected photographic prints were made from this album in previous years and are available in electronic form.

In addition, modern black and white copy prints were made for selected works in this album and are available in the reference collection of Maynard photographs.

Available here are reproductions from original tintype photographs or card mounted prints. Copies include works with Maynard imprints and also works with the imprints of other photographers represented in this album. In many cases, there are duplicate reproductions also found in the BC Archives Photograph Collection, which may have alternative descriptions, annotations or research notes. Please contact the BC Archives to determine the access status of these reference materials.

Restrictions on access

There are no access restrictions.
For conservation reasons, access provided to original is limited. Researchers should consult the online reference image prior to consulting the original. Please contact the BC Archives to determine the access status of this record.

Terms governing use, reproduction, and publication

Item is in the public domain.

Finding aids

Associated materials

Associated Materials
Newspaper articles from the Victoria Daily Colonist and The Daily Colonist relating to Richard and Hannah Maynard as well as Mrs. R. Maynard’s Photographic Gallery are held by the Victoria Times-Colonist. Digital access is available through the University of Victoria Libraries’ digital collection, “Daily Colonist Newspaper Collection.”

Published articles from trade publications including the St. Louis Photographer/St. Louis and Canadian Photographer relating to Hannah Maynard’s studio portraits (September 1886), Maynard family portraits (March, July 1895), and the "Gems of British Columbia" series of annual works are available. St. Louis Photographer/St. Louis and Canadian Photographer is held by the University of Victoria Libraries, University of British Columbia Library, and Simon Fraser University Library.

For carte de visite family photographic albums, featuring card mounted prints of individual and group portraits of Vancouver Island and British Columbian Black pioneer families, identified as the Alexander, Barnswell and Spotts families taken by Mrs. R. Maynard, see the Saanich Pioneer Society Archives.

Related Materials
For other studio portraits of Maynard and non-Maynard family members marketed or produced by Hannah Maynard and the Maynard Studio acquired by the BC Archives, see the BC Archives Photograph Collection. Materials include modern black and white copy prints (legacy reproductions) of Maynard family portraits that appear to have been made from this album, including the series of images of Laura Lillian Maynard with birds (#HP093382 and #HP093383, HP093384) or Laura Lillian Maynard at the washbasin #HP093385, and HP093386) and the tintype of Mrs. H. Maynard and infant (#HP93387). In many cases, there are duplicate reproductions also found in the reference collection of Maynard photographs (see above section on the availability of other formats), which may have alternative descriptions, annotations or research notes. Original prints (including card mounted prints) in the BC Archives Photograph Collection may also have annotations or research notes on the front or verso of the item.

For reference materials containing other portraits and photographs of families featured in this album, including the Maynard family, see the BC Archives general files collection (“Gen files”). Family names can be located by surname and files include reproduction of photographs from a variety of original sources with links to internal image numbers (BC Archives archive codes and related reference codes). Many items are duplicates from the BC Archives Photograph Collection and other archival collections.

For group photographs taken outdoors featuring both Maynard and non-Maynard family members, see MS-2964 Photographs and sketches (files 449 to 490, box 14 and files 491 to 503, box 15). These prints in card mounted and unmounted format appear to be mostly marketed by Richard Maynard but also occasionally Hannah Maynard. There are several photographs of a similar gathering, including a stereograph card identified on the mount as “Spiritualist picnic, Cordova Bay.” Prints sometimes include annotations on front or verso of the print. Described as PR-0356 Newcombe Family fonds.

For textual records relating to photographic lists of individuals presumed to be photographed by Hannah, Richard, Albert Maynard or the Maynard Studio, see MS 1077 Newcombe family papers (see file “A.H. Maynard, lists” in box 20, file 6 or microfilm reel A01755, vol 20, file 6). This file includes the Maynard family members along with many other well-known individuals and families (such as Redfern, Harris, Bossie, Begbie, Sprott, Harrison and Capt. Laing) recorded on several pages bearing the A. H. Maynard letterhead and assumed to be produced during the 1910s. Numbered 1 through 8, lists includes names, sometimes references to family or organizational affiliations and often dates. Described as Newcombe Family fonds – PR-0356.

The BC Archives Photograph Collection holds a small number of Victorian era photocollage works in carte de visite format which may feature Maynard family members. For an example, see HP96368/F-7598 for a work marketed by Mrs. R. Maynard.

The BC Archives Paintings, Drawings and Prints Collection holds a painting by an unknown artist (PDP00272) that resembles the group portrait of Richard and Hannah Maynard featured in this album

For other Maynard family albums in this collection, some of which contain some of the same photographic works featured in this album (also in card mounted formats), see MS-3334 - Photograph album of Mrs. A. H. Maynard.

For an album that showcases the use of Maynard studio portraits in the context of a sample studio album from Mrs. R. Maynard’s Photographic Gallery, see MS-3361 in this collection (PR-1259 Maynard family collection).

Related materials


General note

Archives code(s): MS-3364.

General note

Accession number(s): MS-3364.

General note

Location: 000343-0949.

General note

Album contains additional notes on album pages used likely for BC Archives internal intellectual control (i.e. “93387” on the page containing the print with the tin type portrait of Hannah Maynard).

General note

The studio had several locations over the course of its history, most notably operations at Douglas, Johnston and Pandora Streets in Victoria. After the first location, Mrs. R. Maynard’s Photographic Gallery shared the premises with Richard Maynard’s boot and shoe business.

From 1874, the studio had moved to a location on Douglas and Johnston streets and was inhabited until 1892.

Several employees worked for the studio throughout its existence. It is estimated that in the 1870s to early 1900s, Arthur S. Rappertie (1854?-1923) worked for Hannah Maynard as either her assistant or photographer.

General note

The Maynards had several children. Those who survived past childhood and early adulthood included George Maynard (1852-1926 or 1927), Albert Hatherly Maynard (1857-1934) and Zela Maynard (1854-1913). Several of their children died young, including Laura Lillian Maynard (1867-1883) who died at age 16 and Emma Maynard (1859 or 1860-1893) who died while in her thirties.

The image at the conclusion of this album identified as “Lillie” is depicted in the extended Maynard family group portrait (HP093167/F-05074; HP093210/F-05044). A similar portrait of the extended Maynard family group portrait was sent to and published in the trade publication St. Louis and Canadian Photographer in 1895.

Physical description

There are photographer imprints on the reverse of several card mounted photographs. Imprints bear the following words in a number of different type fonts and imprint designs:

"Mrs. R. Maynard, Photographic Artist And Dealer in all kinds of Photographic Materials. Stereoscopic and Large Views of British Columbia and Vancouver Island for sale. Corner of Douglas and Johnston Sts., Victoria, B.C."

Some card mounted prints bear photographer names and studio imprints other than Maynard and include the following: "H. Thorn" from Bude Haven, "E.W. Burnham Photo" (Cannington, Ontario), "Bradley & Ruloeson" and “J. Hawke” (Plymouth).

Accompanying material

Additional documentation (Maynard family research files) is available. This includes notes on photographic research for Hannah Maynard marketed studio portraits (infant, child, youth and adult portraits) some of which are featured in this album. There are also reproductions of trade publications including St. Louis Photographer, St. Louis and Canadian Photographer (1885, 1886, 1895) and The Practical Photographer (1894). In addition there are also copies contemporary essays and journal articles (History of Photography, Archivaria) and posters or catalogs from Canadian exhibitions of Maynard photography including studio portraits. Several files of Maynard family genealogy research for some members of the Maynard family are located here. This material was created by current and past staff and researchers of BC Archives and includes biographical, contextual, and photographic research information. Please contact the BC Archives to determine the access status of these records.

Alternative identifier(s)

Standard number area

Standard number

Access points

Subject access points

Genre access points

Control area

Description record identifier

Digital object (Master) rights area

Digital object (Reference) rights area

Digital object (Thumbnail) rights area

Accession area