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- Attributions and conjectures: The album is attributed to Richard Maynard.
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Dates of creation area
[between 1880 and 1890] (Creation)
- Maynard, Richard
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Name of creator
Richard Maynard (1832-1907) was a well-known British Columbia photographer, prospector, and business owner originally from Cornwall, England and based in Victoria, British Columbia.
Richard Maynard married Hannah Hatherly in England in 1852 and they immigrated to Bowmanville, Ontario. While there, he operated a boot and shoe business but left in the late 1850s to travel to the Fraser River on the west coast of the country to participate in the gold rush. Richard returned to Bowmanville and he and his wife Hannah moved with their young family to the Colony of Vancouver Island in 1862 on the Sierra Nevada. Upon the Maynard family’s arrival in Fort Victoria, Mr. R. Maynard continued his prospecting enterprises in the Stikine region on the mainland. Upon his return from the area, he joined his family and opened up a business in Victoria.
Primarily a field photographer, Richard was known for his field and landscape photography. It is unknown how or with whom he learnt photography. He made many trips in the Colony of Vancouver Island and the mainland. One of his earliest trips was an excursion to Barkerville in 1868 with his son Albert. At that time, early photographer Frederick Dally was among the other photographers in residence there. In 1873 and 1874, Richard travelled on the vessel the HMS Boxer touring Coast Salish and Interior Salish Indigenous communities as the photographer accompanying government officials including Israel Wood Powell on tours of inspection. The journey in 1873 consisted of travelling to the Northeast Coast of Vancouver Island and adjacent settlements on the mainland including Fort Rupert on Vancouver Island, and Bella Coola, Bella Bella and Cape Caution, and in 1874, he travelled to the West Coast of Vancouver Island which included Friendly Cove in Nootka Sound. In the late 1870s and early 1880s, photographers Oregon Columbus Hastings (1846-1912) and Edward Dossetter (1844 -?) made similar inspection tours with I.W. Powell in 1879 and 1881 respectively.
In the spring of 1884, Richard Maynard traveled to Haida Gwaii (then referred to as the Queen Charlotte Islands) as a photographer with the American explorer Captain Newton H. Chittenden. Engravings from his views were published in the Official Report of the Exploration of the Queen Charlotte Islands for the Government of British Columbia (Victoria, 1884).
Also during the 1880s, Richard Maynard documented the construction of the transcontinental railway in British Columbia and Alberta through multiple tours. In 1885, both Richard and Hannah Maynard appear to have photographed the Canadian Pacific Railway (C.P.R.) along its route through British Columbia. These trips crossed both Coast Salish and Interior Salish Indigenous territorial regions and produced images of both colonial and Indigenous settlements and communities at a time of intense change and oppression that significantly affected Indigenous lifeways, rights, resources and lands in British Columbia. Maynard C.P.R. related photographic "views" were available for order or purchase at the Maynard Studio and other commercial operations in Victoria and on the mainland during the 1880s.
In the late 1870s and 1880s, Richard also made several trips further up the continent to Alaska for photographic purposes in 1879, 1882, 1887, and in 1892 to the Pribilof Islands where he documented sealing and seal rookeries.
For his work, Richard Maynard received acknowledgements including those representing museum and photographic communities. In a public lecture in 1884, members of the Newcombe family acknowledged Richard Maynard's ethnographic work British Columbia and Alaska, and his documentary record of the Cariboo Road in the 1860s and 1870s. In 1890, Richard Maynard won first prize in the professional class for the Victoria landscape view, "The Arm" by West Shore magazine in October of 1890. During his lifetime, Richard Maynard’s photographic works appear to have been collected by a number of museum institutions in the United States.
During the course of his career, the personal history of Richard Maynard and his wife are closely linked, to both his photographic work and that of his wife’s photographic studio, Mrs. R. Maynard’s Photographic Gallery (1862? – 1912). Richard Maynard and Hannah Maynard took several working trips together where they both practiced landscape photography during the 1870s and 1880s. This included trips to Vancouver Island, Haida Gwaii and to Banff, Alberta. Richard Maynard's field photography and landscape views appear to be used by Hannah as source material for composite works, such as the piece “80 Views on the Frazer River” featuring multiple landscape views, and also in their “documentary” composite works of Indigenous subjects. Photographic work created by Richard and his wife Hannah have been attributed to each other in several ways and means over their photographic careers. Both Richard and Hannah Maynard have been given credit for the same photographic work, as in the case for the Victoria landscape view, "The Arm."
Richard Maynard retires in the late 1890s. In 1896, his son Albert Hatherly Maynard (1857-1934) became the general manager of his business, as well as taking over management of the photographic stock. Richard Maynard died at the age of 74 on January 10, 1907, in Victoria, British Columbia.
Scope and content
The item is an album containing field photographs, the bulk of which contains landscape views that document the coast and interior of British Columbia, as well as Banff, Alberta. The album is attributed to Richard Maynard. The images were likely produced during photographic tours the Maynards conducted to document the construction of the transcontinental railway, including the Canadian Pacific Railway (C.P.R). The photographs are credited to Richard Maynard, but could also be attributed to Hannah Maynard.
During the 1880s, Richard Maynard documented the construction of the Canadian Pacific Railway (C.P.R) in British Columbia and Alberta through multiple trips conducted during the early-to-late 1880s. In 1885, both Richard and Hannah Maynard appear to have photographed the Canadian Pacific Railway along its route through British Columbia.
During this time, the Maynards commercially sold their C.P.R related photographic "views" to the public. They were available for order or purchase at Mrs. R. Maynard’s Photographic Gallery and other commercial operations in Victoria and on the mainland. Photographs, including some of the images featured in this album, were marketed through advertisements in the Inland Sentinel newspaper. Views of Lady Franklin Rock (Fraser River) and Emory were listed in the issue of August 3, 1882, as were images of Hells Gate (Fraser River) on July 5, 1883. On June 11, 1885, documentary images of New Westminster, as well as Esquimalt and the Gorge/Victoria Arm (Vancouver Island) were announced. And on July 30, 1885, the Inland Sentinel reported "choice views" of Kamloops and vicinity after Richard Maynard was reported to be visiting the region in June 1885.
Other photographers were also known to have documented the development of the region before and after the work of the Maynards. In the 1870s, this included commercial photographers such as Benjamin Balzly of Montreal’s William Notman studio working as a part of the Geological Survey of Canada’s survey of British Columbia.
The view album consists of 62 sepia toned albumen photographic prints mounted on 31 pages. Each page contains a title and photographer’s name in prints and on album pages, which appears to reflect the perspective of the photographer. There does not appear to be dates and nor associated photograph numbers for the original negatives identified on pages or in prints.
Photographs include views of railroad stations, bridge and trestle construction, pathways and routes. Field portraits of crew members, the Maynards, as well other individuals are represented here. Also included are colonial and Indigenous settlements. Colonial settlements are identified as including Victoria, Esquimalt, Nanaimo, Vancouver, New Westminster, Kamloops, and Banff, Alberta. Indigenous settlements, not specifically identified in image captions, include the Songhees community which are captured in the views identified as Victoria. There are also photographs with views that document the presence of Indigenous fishing activities, including fishing stations, on the Fraser River. The beginning of the album features a small number of Victoria views including the Esquimalt dry-dock, and a panorama of the Esquimalt harbor. The album features the award-winning landscape view, "The Arm," which Richard Maynard won first prize in the professional class in West Shore magazine in October of 1890 (later also credited to Hannah Maynard in St. Louis & Canadian Photographer that same year). There is one image identified as the coal mining district of Anthracite, Banff.
Landscape views contain information about geographical features and natural resources in British Columbia and Alberta which encompass First Nation and Indigenous traditional territories (such as the Coast Salish and Interior Salish) which were located in the region and along railway routes the Maynards captured. These include rivers, creeks and lakes identified in the album as the Salmon, Harrison, Fraser, Thompson, Columbia, “Illcillewait” and Bow Rivers, along with Stoney Creek, Devil Lake Creek and Summit Lake. Mountains ranges and passes including Eagle Pass, Syndicate Peak, “Mount Caroulle”, Kicking Horse Pass, Mount Stephen, Mount Castle, Mount Edith, as well as the Cascade Mountains, Tunnel Mountain, Devil Lake Canon and the Three Sisters. Several specific geographical formations such as “Lady Franklin Rock, Fraser River” are also featured and identified. There are also a number of parks that appear to be recorded including Harrison River Hot Springs, and Hot Springs at the National Park (Banff).
Immediate source of acquisition
Language of material
Script of material
Location of originals
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Terms governing use, reproduction, and publication
Articles from the Inland Sentinel relating to the work of Richard Maynard, including the availability of Canadian Pacific Railway photographs in Victoria and on the mainland in places such as Yale during the period of 1882,1883 and 1885 are available. Inland Sentinel is held by the Thompson River University.
For more information about Lady Franklin Rock, Fraser River see Stó:lō Library and Archives, Stó:lō Research and Resource Management Centre.
For materials relating to Richard Maynard’s 1890 award received for the Victoria landscape view, "The Arm," see PR2365 Medals, Tokens and Numismatic Collection.
For alternative print versions of Maynard views relating to the Canadian Pacific Railway construction in British Columbia and Alberta in the 1880s, including images of the Fraser River (near Yale, B.C.) (#HP010944/ #198905-001), the Glacier Hotel (Glacier, B.C.) (#HP093297/#F-05130 and #HP020618/#G-02976) and surrounding mountain ranges (#HP093263/#F-05143) and the Selkirk Mountains (#HP070937/#D-06774), see the BC Archives Photograph Collection. Also in this collection is a composite photograph that depicts C.P.R. views along with Cariboo views in a multi-image montage photograph sometimes described as “80 Views on the Frazer [sic] River” (#HP17979).
For textual materials, such as notebooks containing photograph lists (see “Note Book of Photography for the use of Landscape Photographers,” number “3” in box 47, file 2j or reel a01764 , vol 47, file 2j for the 1887 tour of Selkirk and Rocky Mountains; notebook number “7” in box 47, file 2f or reel a01764 , vol 47, file 2f for the 1882 trip to Yale), related to Richard Maynard’s field and ethnographic documentary photography produced during his tours of Canadian Pacific Railway construction in British Columbia and Alberta in the 1880s, see MS-1077 Newcombe family papers. There are also textual records, such as diaries that include accounts of tours made by Hannah Maynard 1885 to geographic regions related to railway construction (see diary, number “book 2” in box 47, file 1A), in this collection. In addition, there are also research notes that interpret these original records (see box 47, file 2e or reel a01764, vol 47, file 2e) also in MS-1077. Textual records often contain information on various tours Hannah and Richard Maynard participated in throughout their photographic careers, including those for C.P.R. construction. These records were microfilmed in the 1980s and in 2002. Some microfilmed records were not captured in their entirety. Original records contain additional information. Please contact the BC Archives to determine the use, reproduction, and publication status of records other that microfilmed surrogates. Described as Newcombe Family fonds – PR-0356.
For additional albums that feature ethnographic, field and landscape photography produced by R. Maynard and/or Mrs. R. Maynard, including alternative views of Lady Franklin Rock (Fraser River) and an alternative version of the composite image sometimes described as “80 Views on the Frazer [sic] River” or “Some of the Many Scenes of British Columbia by R. Maynard,” see MS-2951 – My Automobile Trips/Lillian E Maynard in this collection.
There are alternative captions other than those present on album pages, and sometimes contain more or different information. These alternative captions can be found within the photographic image of each individual print.
Some photographic prints include handwritten captions on a clear square background, such as the following featured on page 42: “The Glacier, C P.R. By R. Maynard Victoria, B.C.”
Some photographic prints include typed captions in a square format such as the following featured on page 23: “LADY FRANKLIN ROCK” and “FRASER RIVER, B.C.”
Some photographic prints include captions with an ornate font such as the following featured on page 55: “Sanatarium’ Banff, C.P.R. Photo. Maynard Victoria B.C.”