Series MS-3100 - Photographs

The Colonial Secretary's Office; The Colonial Office, Victoria, Vancouver Island, B.C.; The ... The Land Office, The Legislative Council Court, The Colonial Office, The Supreme Court, The Treasury The Post Office; The Custom House; Victoria, B.C. The Treasury, Victoria The Town of Barkerville, Williams Creek, Cariboo before the fire Richfield;  The Court House; The Magistrate's residence; The Prison; The Judge's reside... Richfield, Williams Creek, Cariboo. Camerontown, William's Creek, Cariboo The Legislative Building, Victoria, B.C. [Members of first Legislature after the union of the two colonies, in front of Birdcages, Victoria] The Legislative Building, Victoria, B.C. [Supreme Court] The prison, Victoria, BC Fort Street, Victoria, BC. Wharf Street, Victoria, B.C. Wharf Street, Hudson's Bay Co. Store, Victoria, B.C. Government House (north view). Government House, Victoria, B.C. (south view). (Northeast view) Government House. The Guard House, Government House, Victoria. James Bay Bridge Angela College, The Ladies Seminary, Victoria, B.C. The Church (St. Paul's) Esquimalt, V.I. Esquimalt Town, V.I. [Vancouver Island] Royal Navy Dockyard, Esquimalt, V.I. [Vancouver Island]. The Royal Navy Clubhouse, Esquimalt, V.I. [Vancouver Island] The Royal Navy Cemetry [Cemetery], Esquimalt, V.I. [Vancouver Island]. The grave of the late Cmdr. The Honble. [Honorable] Horace Douglas Lascelles, Esquimalt R.N. [Roy... The grave of the late Govr. [Governor] Fredk. [Frederick] Seymour, Esq. [Esquire],  R.N. [Royal N... The Admiral House, Esquimalt, V.I. [Vancouver Island]. Esquimalt, V.I. [Vancouver Island].
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Dates of creation area


  • 1873-1879 (Creation)
    Maynard, Richard
  • 1866 - 1870 (Creation)
    Dally, Frederick, 1838-1914

Physical description area

Physical description

10 albums and one set of mounted prints.

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Biographical history

Frederick Dally was born in Wellingborough, Northamptonshire, England in 1840. He arrived in Victoria, British Columbia, in 1862, on the China Clipper “Cyclone.” In March 1864, Dally leased a store at the corner of Fort and Government streets, and in 1866 he opened a photographic studio in Victoria. Between 1865 and 1870, he took extensive photographs around Vancouver Island and in the Cariboo District.

In 1866 Dally accompanied Governor A.E. Kennedy on H.M.S. Scout for a tour of Vancouver Island and Nootka Sound with his primary purpose being to visit and photograph First Nations communities.

In 1867, Dally visited the Cariboo goldfields in the central interior of British Columbia, and opened for business in Barkerville. He remained here for one month before returning to Victoria after a brief stay in Quesnelmouth. He returned to the Cariboo and again set up shop in Barkerville the following summer. His studio was in operation for only two weeks before it was destroyed by the Barkerville fire on September 16, 1868. During his stays in the Cariboo, Dally photographed mines, towns, and scenery. By December of the same year, Dally had returned to Victoria and was again operating his studio on Fort Street.

In 1870, Dally’s business was taken over by the Green Brothers, who were meant to purchase Dally’s negatives and photography equipment. Two years later, these items went for sale at auction and many of Dally’s negatives were purchased by Richard and Hannah Maynard. Many of Dally’s photographs were published for sale under the Maynard name.

In October of 1870, Frederick Dally travelled to Philadelphia where he enrolled in a dentistry program. He graduated in 1872, at which point he returned to England to practice dentistry.

Frederick Dally died in 1914.

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Biographical history

Richard Maynard (1832-1907) was a well-known British Columbia photographer, prospector, and business owner originally from Cornwall, England and based in Victoria, British Columbia.

Richard Maynard married Hannah Hatherly in England in 1852 and they immigrated to Bowmanville, Ontario. While there, he operated a boot and shoe business but left in the late 1850s to travel to the Fraser River on the west coast of the country to participate in the gold rush. Richard returned to Bowmanville and he and his wife Hannah moved with their young family to the Colony of Vancouver Island in 1862 on the Sierra Nevada. Upon the Maynard family’s arrival in Fort Victoria, Mr. R. Maynard continued his prospecting enterprises in the Stikine region on the mainland. Upon his return from the area, he joined his family and opened up a business in Victoria.

Primarily a field photographer, Richard was known for his field and landscape photography. It is unknown how or with whom he learnt photography. He made many trips in the Colony of Vancouver Island and the mainland. One of his earliest trips was an excursion to Barkerville in 1868 with his son Albert. At that time, early photographer Frederick Dally was among the other photographers in residence there. In 1873 and 1874, Richard travelled on the vessel the HMS Boxer touring Coast Salish and Interior Salish Indigenous communities as the photographer accompanying government officials including Israel Wood Powell on tours of inspection. The journey in 1873 consisted of travelling to the Northeast Coast of Vancouver Island and adjacent settlements on the mainland including Fort Rupert on Vancouver Island, and Bella Coola, Bella Bella and Cape Caution, and in 1874, he travelled to the West Coast of Vancouver Island which included Friendly Cove in Nootka Sound. In the late 1870s and early 1880s, photographers Oregon Columbus Hastings (1846-1912) and Edward Dossetter (1844 -?) made similar inspection tours with I.W. Powell in 1879 and 1881 respectively.

In the spring of 1884, Richard Maynard traveled to Haida Gwaii (then referred to as the Queen Charlotte Islands) as a photographer with the American explorer Captain Newton H. Chittenden. Engravings from his views were published in the Official Report of the Exploration of the Queen Charlotte Islands for the Government of British Columbia (Victoria, 1884).

Also during the 1880s, Richard Maynard documented the construction of the transcontinental railway in British Columbia and Alberta through multiple tours. In 1885, both Richard and Hannah Maynard appear to have photographed the Canadian Pacific Railway (C.P.R.) along its route through British Columbia. These trips crossed both Coast Salish and Interior Salish Indigenous territorial regions and produced images of both colonial and Indigenous settlements and communities at a time of intense change and oppression that significantly affected Indigenous lifeways, rights, resources and lands in British Columbia. Maynard C.P.R. related photographic "views" were available for order or purchase at the Maynard Studio and other commercial operations in Victoria and on the mainland during the 1880s.

In the late 1870s and 1880s, Richard also made several trips further up the continent to Alaska for photographic purposes in 1879, 1882, 1887, and in 1892 to the Pribilof Islands where he documented sealing and seal rookeries.

For his work, Richard Maynard received acknowledgements including those representing museum and photographic communities. In a public lecture in 1884, members of the Newcombe family acknowledged Richard Maynard's ethnographic work British Columbia and Alaska, and his documentary record of the Cariboo Road in the 1860s and 1870s. In 1890, Richard Maynard won first prize in the professional class for the Victoria landscape view, "The Arm" by West Shore magazine in October of 1890. During his lifetime, Richard Maynard’s photographic works appear to have been collected by a number of museum institutions in the United States.

During the course of his career, the personal history of Richard Maynard and his wife are closely linked, to both his photographic work and that of his wife’s photographic studio, Mrs. R. Maynard’s Photographic Gallery (1862? – 1912). Richard Maynard and Hannah Maynard took several working trips together where they both practiced landscape photography during the 1870s and 1880s. This included trips to Vancouver Island, Haida Gwaii and to Banff, Alberta. Richard Maynard's field photography and landscape views appear to be used by Hannah as source material for composite works, such as the piece “80 Views on the Frazer River” featuring multiple landscape views, and also in their “documentary” composite works of Indigenous subjects. Photographic work created by Richard and his wife Hannah have been attributed to each other in several ways and means over their photographic careers. Both Richard and Hannah Maynard have been given credit for the same photographic work, as in the case for the Victoria landscape view, "The Arm."

Richard Maynard retires in the late 1890s. In 1896, his son Albert Hatherly Maynard (1857-1934) became the general manager of his business, as well as taking over management of the photographic stock. Richard Maynard died at the age of 74 on January 10, 1907, in Victoria, British Columbia.

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Scope and content

The series consists of photograph albums and loose photographs created primarily by Frederick Dally. File MS-3100.11, Accession 198611-001, also contains photographs by Richard Maynard and possibly Oregon Hastings. All prints, whether loose or in albums, are black and white, created between 1866 and ca 1879.

Frederick Dally (1838-1914) was born in Southward, U.K. He journeyed to Victoria, Vancouver Island, in 1862 at the height of the Cariboo Gold Rush. In 1866, Dally opened a photographic gallery on Fort Street making portraits in the carte de visite format. He photographed Victoria streetscapes, Vancouver Island landscapes, the San Juan Island British Camp, and visiting Royal Navy ships and crews. As an amateur ethnographer, Dally photographed indigenous peoples in his studio, in coastal villages and through the Interior.

Dally ventured into the British Columbia interior photographing the Cariboo Wagon Road, and isolated road houses. He made the gold rush town of Barkerville his base for two seasons where he shot portraits and views of miners posed at their placer gold claims and mining camps amid deforested hills.

In 1870, Dally left British Columbia to study dentistry in Philadelphia. He returned to the UK to practice and died there in 1914, having sold some of his photographs and papers to the B.C. Archives in the same year.

Since photographers often sold their original glass plate negatives to other photographers when they went out of business, some of these original views may have been taken by other photographers, e.g. Carlo Gentile, but for the most part the images were shot and printed by Dally.

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The original negatives were glass plates, some of which survive as part of the Maynard fonds, since the Maynard's acquired some of Dally's plates after he closed his photographic business. Albums have been digitized and high resolution images are available to view on the A/V Kiosk in the reference room.

Restrictions on access

For conservation reasons, no access is provided to either the album or any of the original glass plates from which these views were produced.

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General note

Accession number(s): 198508-009; 198509-001; 198509-002; 198509-003; 198509-004; 198509-005; 198508-016; 198506-001; 198509-006; 198510-001; 198611-001; 198905-005, 2016.36

General note

Album previous described as Dally album 8 (MS-3100.8) has been redescribed as MS-3324 and removed from the Dally fonds.

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