Scandinavians--British Columbia--History

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Scandinavians--British Columbia--History

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Scandinavians--British Columbia--History

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Scandinavians--British Columbia--History

65 Archival description results for Scandinavians--British Columbia--History

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Alex Pouttu interview

SUPPLIED TITLE OF TAPE(S): Dreams of freedom : Alex Pouttu RECORDED: Sointula (B.C.), 1982-02-11 SUMMARY: Alex Pouttu discusses: born in Sointula, 1907; father was one of first colonists; fishing and logging; father built own house, it's still there now; school; started working, 1923 in logging camp; worked in 34 different logging camps on the coast; fishing; farming; weather; plays; Finnish organization; war experience; carving; good place to grow up. (End of interview)

Alfred B. Williams interview : [Fish, 1979]

SUPPLIED TITLE OF TAPE(S): Dreams of freedom : Alfred Williams RECORDED: Sointula (B.C.), 1979-08 SUMMARY: Alfred Williams discusses his early life at Sointula: life at Sointula; Rivers Inlet; Darby Channel; Ocean Falls; Johnstone Straight; Malcolm Island; Rough Bay; Fort Rupert; Bull Harbour; hoochies; humpies; highliner; Finnish Organization.

Alfred B. Williams interview : [Fish, 1982]

CALL NUMBER: T4031:0018 SUPPLIED TITLE OF TAPE(S): Dreams of freedom : Alfred Williams RECORDED: Sointula (B.C.), 1982-02-10 SUMMARY: Alfred Williams discusses: his background- third generation Finnish-Canadian, born 1921, mother's family was one of original groups that came to Sointula; father came from Lake Superior when he was 6 years old; educated himself through books he ordered on subjects he was interested in; worked on construction of store and school; honesty was an important value in the community; always interested in politics; getting involved with the Finnish organization when he was young. Mrs. Williams comments on hearing about Iso aiti "Great Mother", even though her family lived in Vancouver. Alfred Williams discusses: Finnish culture; getting into trouble at school; getting his own boat in 1938; difficulties of this lifestyle; food and diet. CALL NUMBER: T4031:0019 SUPPLIED TITLE OF TAPE(S): Dreams of freedom : Alfred Williams RECORDED: Sointula (B.C.), 1982-02-10 SUMMARY: Alfred Williams: first time he went to Cape Scott; fishing gear; politics; characters of the time; goals of community founders- individuals not radicals, haven for communists; people involved in the war effort; differences between the old days and now in the area; Fraser River backyard boats; description of the fishing operation. CALL NUMBER: T4031:0020 SUPPLIED TITLE OF TAPE(S): Dreams of freedom : Alfred Williams RECORDED: Sointula (B.C.), 1982-02-10 SUMMARY: Mrs. Williams discusses what life was like when she first went up to Sointula: people did not know she was Finnish; everyone knew everyone; much more communal lifestyle in Sointula -- no hurry, lots of friends; seeing grouses. (End of interview)

Alfred Ildstead interview

RECORDED: [location unknown], [1979?] SUMMARY: TRACK 1: Mr. Ildstead [or Ildstad?] discusses the Norwegian settlement at Quatsino; transportation; life in the settlement; Winter Harbour; the salmon run; fishing; canneries; whaling; early settlers; Ned Frigo, an early fur trader in the area (born 1819, died 1917); Indians; Port Alice pulp mill; Quatsino today; Mr. Ildstead's employment; and the Danes at Cape Scott. [TRACK 2: blank.]

Alfred Williams and Olavi Anderson interview

SUPPLIED TITLE OF TAPE(S): Dreams of freedom : Alfred Williams and Olavi Anderson RECORDED: Sointula (B.C.), 1979-08 SUMMARY: Alfred Williams and Olavi Anderson discuss: Suquash mine; Rough Bay; Kaleva; Toivo Aro; Pulteney Point; Keisler; Hylton brothers; Mandie.;

Algot Swanson interview

SUPPLIED TITLE OF TAPE(S): Algot Swanson : leader in Swedish community activities RECORDED: Vancouver (B.C.), 1972-05-11 SUMMARY: Algot Swanson was born in 1890 in Sweden, and immigrated to Canada in 1909. He held various labouring jobs and settled in Vancouver during the First World War. He discusses his involvement as a leader in all Swedish Community activities. He recounts the various Swedish cultural and community organizations that have existed and still exist (1972) in Vancouver.

Andrew Juvelien interview

SUPPLIED TITLE OF TAPE(S): Andrew Juvelien : Swedish-Canadian carpenter in British Columbia RECORDED: Burnaby (B.C.), 1972-03-23 SUMMARY: Andrew Juvelien describes his life in Canada after he came from Sweden in 1913. Work as a carpenter in Saskatchewan and B.C. Homesteading in Saskatchewan. Socialism and his involvement in the beginnings of the Cooperative Commonwealth Federation (CCF). Political opinions as well as biography.

Annie Engebretson interview

SUPPLIED TITLE OF TAPE(S): Annie Engebretson : Bella Coola colony and Anahim Lake PERIOD COVERED: 1894-1934 RECORDED: [location unknown], 1966-08-23 SUMMARY: TRACK 1: Annie Engebretson (nee Lunos or Lunaas) discusses her father Jacob J. Lunaas' arrival in Bella Coola from Minnesota to the Saugstad colony in 1895. She then discusses their first three years in the colony, leaving for Victoria in 1900, moving to Anahim Lake for health reasons (1903-1916), the four different trails to Anahim Lake from Bella Coola, sellers and Indians and families at Anahim; Lake, and stories about Ben Franklin and Capoose. TRACK 2: Engebretson continues with more on settlers and inhabitants at Anahim Lake (1898-1913), Father Thomas, and the possible origin of the different physical appearance of Bella Coola Indians.

Annie Levelton interview

SUPPLIED TITLE OF TAPE(S): Annie Levelton recalls early life in the Bella Coola Valley (1895) RECORDED: [location unknown], 1966-08-18 SUMMARY: TRACK 1: Annie Levelton describes her arrival in Bella Coola when she was four years old from Norway. Then she discusses her mother and the challenge of moving to such a remote area and credit is given to Mr. Clayton who was the Hudson's Bay factor (1895) who made sure that no one starved. She discusses her father (Erasmus Levelton) and his coming to Minnesota, Rev. Christian Saugstad, her mother,; and relations with the Bella Coola Stikine. Then she tells a story of how her life was saved by the famous Indian Capoose, and two anecdotes about bears. She discusses working on Bella Coola's road building, fishing, Mrs. Clayton, her mother's nursing, and Hagensborg. TRACK 2: Annie Levelton recalls carrying stoves, other goods, and equipment over the creek. Then she relates Ole Saugstad's muscular exploits.

Arne Johnson interview

SUPPLIED TITLE OF TAPE(S): Arne Johnson RECORDED: Sointula (B.C.), 1972-05-04 SUMMARY: Arne Johnson was born in Norway in 1893, and immigrated to Canada in the early twentieth century. He worked as a logger on the B.C. coast until he became a full time secretary for Lumber Workers Industrial Union in 1929. He helped to keep the union alive until it joined the I.W.A. in 1936. Organized loggers on the B.C. coast and led the first big logger strike in B.C. in 1934.

Arnt Arntzen interview

CALL NUMBER: T0009:0001 SUPPLIED TITLE OF TAPE(S): Arni Arntzen RECORDED: Burnaby (B.C.), 1972-03-22 SUMMARY: TRACK 1: Arni Arntzen discusses life in Sweden before 1905 when he came to New Orleans. Life in America, and coming to Canada about 1913. Worked on Grand Trunk Railway in Rockies. Taking rafts down Upper Fraser. Homestead near Prince George, and later in Saskatchewan. Prairie life in Depression. Finally came to B.C. during WWII. TRACK 2: Arni Arntzen's ideas about Canada then and now.

CALL NUMBER: T0009:0002 SUPPLIED TITLE OF TAPE(S): Arni Arntzen RECORDED: Burnaby (B.C.), 1972-03-22 SUMMARY: Arni Arntzen's life and his political ideas.

Art E. Newman interview

CALL NUMBER: T0542:0001 SUPPLIED TITLE OF TAPE(S): Production Superintendent for Canadian Forest Products PERIOD COVERED: 1930-1975 RECORDED: Beaver Cove (B.C.), 1974-07-29 SUMMARY: TRACK 1: Art Newman discusses: techniques and skills in hand falling, 1930; predominance of Scandinavians in falling, 1930s; importance of Scandinavians in organizing the IWA; responsibility of the bull buckers in setting prices and contract rates, 1930-1964; the process of setting contract rates and production priorities; becomes a bull bucker, 1946. Talks about problems of the bull bucker: quality, accident prevention, costs and production. Dealing with men. Qualities of a good faller. Differences in falling small and large timber. The faller's "mistake book". Type and frequency of accidents. Coming to Nimpkish, 1946. Accepting responsibilities in the logging industry. The making of a supervisor. TRACK 2: Art Newman discusses: his move to Woss camp, 1946; logging sites surrounding Woss camp 1946-47; life in Nimpkish camp, 1946-60; getting assistance to the camps in emergencies; family life in Nimpkish; recreation and community activities; problems with alcohol; logging methods during late 1940s; sizes of settings, 1940-70s; transition from hand falling to power saw falling, 1935-50; changes in amounts of timber cut per man per day, 1930-75. Talks about his acquisition of logging knowledge. CALL NUMBER: T0542:0002 SUPPLIED TITLE OF TAPE(S): Production Superintendent for Canadian Forest Products PERIOD COVERED: 1930-1974 RECORDED: Beaver Cove (B.C.), 1974-07-29 SUMMARY: TRACK 1: Reasons for changeover to railway/truck logging from strictly railway logging. Description of Russell Mills. Membership in the IWA, 1942-46. Changes in the IWA union, 1946-74. Communist influence of IWA, 1945-50. [TRACK 2: blank.; end of interview.]

Arvo Tynjala interview : [Kennedy, 1975]

SUPPLIED TITLE OF TAPE(S): Arvo Tynjala : Sointula, B.C. RECORDED: Vancouver (B.C.), 1972-05-13 & 16 & 25 SUMMARY: Arvo Tynjala was born in 1897 in North Dakota and moved to Sointula, B.C., with his family in 1901. He discusses the Finnish community at Sointula, providing an account of what it was and what happened to it. Memories of logging on B.C. coast. Union activities of loggers before 1934. The salmon fishing industry: first strikes and attempts to organize. The formation of the United Fishermen and Allied Workers' Union (UFAWU). The lives of fishermen and cannery workers, and how things have changed.

Arvo Tynjala interview : [Orchard, 1967]

CALL NUMBER: T1016:0005 SUPPLIED TITLE OF TAPE(S): The Finnish community at Sointula, B.C. RECORDED: [location unknown], 1967-06-22 SUMMARY: TRACK 1: Arvo Tynjala was born in 1897 and discusses the origins of Sointula. The arrival of the Tynjala family at Sointula in 1902. Early activities and settlers at Sointula. The meaning of the name.; Early buildings and living arrangements. The fire of 1903. TRACK 2: The fire of 1903 and its consequences. Plants and animals around Sointula. Fishing, lumbering. The end of the Kalevan Kansa Colonization Co. Ltd. Early settlers. Leaders of the community.

CALL NUMBER: T1016:0006 SUPPLIED TITLE OF TAPE(S): The Finnish community at Sointula, B.C. PERIOD COVERED: 1902-1940 RECORDED: [location unknown], 1967-06-22 SUMMARY: TRACK 1: Arvo Tynjala discusses printing "Aika". The Finnish library. Opposition to religion. Temperance. Education. Athletics. Finnish organization and co-op store. Saunas. Fishing and working in the; canneries. TRACK 2: Fishing work in canneries. Chinese people. Native people. Farming. Finnish Sointula songs. Meaning of Kalevan Kansa.

Charles and Sally Peterson interview

CALL NUMBER: T4031:0021 SUPPLIED TITLE OF TAPE(S): Dreams of freedom : Charles Henry Peterson and Sally Peterson RECORDED: Sointula (B.C.), 1982-02-11 SUMMARY: Sally Peterson discusses: school and her childhood; farming (her father was Teodar Tanner); picnics; community activities- dances, band; mother came here from Washington state; father's character. Charles Peterson: early logging experiences (Mission area); logging truck driver experiences- North Vancouver, Malcolm Island, Port McNeill, problems on hills, runaway truck, 3 wrecks in 3 years.

CALL NUMBER: T4031:0022 SUPPLIED TITLE OF TAPE(S): Dreams of freedom : Charles Henry Peterson and Sally Peterson RECORDED: Sointula (B.C.), 1982-02-11 SUMMARY: Charles Peterson: Great cedar on Malcolm Island; turntable for logging trucks at booming ground (description of this). Sally Peterson: not much work for women in Sointula in terms of a career; co-op annual meetings- all day affair, kids there for lunch; religion- parents did not need it; Sointula is a good place to bring up kids; few memories of the colony. (End of interview)

Chris Wilkerson interview

SUPPLIED TITLE OF TAPE(S): Chris Wilkerson recalls life in Firvale, Bella Coola, 1918-1951 RECORDED: [location unknown], 1966-08-19 SUMMARY: TRACK 1: Chris Wilkerson describes coming from Alberta to Firvale in 1918, trapping, family in Firvale, 7th Day Adventists, Norwegian settlers, a story about Old Quahoose's Engine, more on trapping involving the Hudson's Bay Company, the Indian graveyard and a story about a bear. TRACK 2: Wilkerson continues by describing how "Burnt Bridge" got its name, tall tales by Old Gladhill, Old Chief Squinas, gold in Whitewater, the Waddington Massacre, John Clayton and the Hudsons Bay Company, Indians at Camp Aeven and details about the Old Palmer Trail.

Clara Hersley interview

CALL NUMBER: T4031:0009 SUPPLIED TITLE OF TAPE(S): Dreams of freedom : Clara Hersley RECORDED: Nanoose Bay (B.C.), 1982-02-09 SUMMARY: Clara Hersley discusses background and youth: she was eldest daughter of Theo Frederiksen; grandfather came in first settlement, and he tried to build a dyke by himself; she had to walk 2 miles to school every day; C.B. Christensen was teacher; chores; catalogues for Christmas gifts; description of making butter; haying- all pitched in, water came up under stacks at high tide; community work -- men; cared for trails and roads; produced a lot of their own food -- animals, game, fish, food from Quatsino; weather signs; lots of berries; toys; dad brought organ back from Vancouver; dances -- visits to neighbours meant very long walks (25-30 miles); beachcombing finds -- cotton bale, crates of oranges; parents seemed to cope with difficulties; why dad came back to Nanoose Bay. CALL NUMBER: T4031:0010 SUPPLIED TITLE OF TAPE(S): Dreams of freedom : Clara Hersley RECORDED: Nanoose Bay (B.C.), 1982-02-09 SUMMARY: Clara Hersley discusses: doing lots of walking in her youth; trapping mink and raccoons around Cape Scott; gardening crops; favourite place -- watching the ways; cougars -- looking for tracks on the Sand Neck, father and brothers hunted them, cougar tracks on the way back from getting mail, meeting cougar on trail; father's character -- man of principles; father did not want to leave the Cape; DEW; line station and Air Force came; grandfather and dykes; entertainment- radio from Calgary, music; some characters here at the time; brothers lost at sea -- taking boat to Scott Islands, long search of beaches; mail service- capsized once, but everything saved; birth of sisters -- local midwives. (End of interview)

Cliff Kopas interview

CALL NUMBER: T1273:0001 SUPPLIED TITLE OF TAPE(S): Clifford Kopas recalls arrival in Bella Coola in 1933 and tells some early history, 1862-1894 PERIOD COVERED: 1862-1933 RECORDED: Bella Coola (B.C.), 1966-08-19 SUMMARY: TRACK 1: Clifford Kopas recalls his arrival in Bella Coola in 1933 and discusses some early history of the region (1862-1894): his arrival in Bella Coola by following Alexander Mackenzie's route in 19;33, the trip from Quesnel to Algatcho, his arrival in Firvale, and his first impressions of the Bella Coola Valley. TRACK 2: Clifford Kopas discusses the Waddington massacre, the death of Governor Frederick Seymour in 1869, fishing, the arrival of Lieutenant H.S. Palmer of the Royal Engineers in 1862, "The Grease Trail" from 1862 to 1869, "overlanders" who came to Bella Coola in search of gold, 1;869 Hudson's Bay Co. established their post, a series of men who served at the fort from 1869-1882, the 1883 arrival of missionaries including William Henry Pierce and Thomas Crosby, how in 1885 B.F. Jacobsen visited Bella Coola and took 9 native people to Germany, and the Norwegian settlers who arrived in 1894.

CALL NUMBER: T1273:0002 SUPPLIED TITLE OF TAPE(S): Clifford Kopas : Bella Coola road, 1951-1955 and more history, 1922-1937 PERIOD COVERED: 1793-1955 RECORDED: Bella Coola (B.C.), 1966-08-19 SUMMARY: TRACK 1: Clifford Kopas discusses Bella Coola Road (1951-1955) and more history from the region (1922-1937). Kopas discusses the construction for the Bella Coola Road including problems, costs, a com;parison to previous trails, the canyon, the precipice, and Indian routes. Then he discusses other activities pertaining to the road including tourism, logging, mining, and fishing. TRACK 2: Clifford Kopas continues with more on the road including the need for a highway, the building of an airstrip, television, the differences between isolation and civilization, tourism and hotels. Kopas discusses; petroglyphs (rock carvings) which were unearthed in 1922 , the origins of Indians in the area including details about crossing the Bering Strait, a description of Alexander MacKenzie's trip in 1793, Kopas' own trip through the Interior (compared to MacKenzie's), "Grease Trail", Lord Tweedsmuir's visit, Bella Coola's move in 1937, and details about the typhoid epidemic.

CALL NUMBER: T1273:0003 SUPPLIED TITLE OF TAPE(S): Clifford Kopas : life in Bella Coola - the people PERIOD COVERED: 1966-1966 RECORDED: Bella Coola (B.C.), 1966-08-19 SUMMARY: TRACK 1: Clifford Kopas describes relationships between whites and Indians, the Indian adaptation to white civilization, a breakdown of the male population in occupations, agriculture in the Bella Coo;la Valley, how milk is brought in from Vancouver, weather in the winter, his impressions of Anahim Lake, community spirit and Norwegians, and the advantages of Bella Coola as a port. [TRACK 2: blank.;]

Dickie Michelson interview

CALL NUMBER: T4031:0032 SUPPLIED TITLE OF TAPE(S): Dreams of freedom : Dickie Michelson RECORDED: New Westminster (B.C.), 1982-02-26 SUMMARY: Dickie Michelson discusses: growing-up in Sointula; school; grandparents; working; many fishing anecdotes; cooking; economics; describes areas he fished in; catching tuna; weather when fishing.

CALL NUMBER: T4031:0033 SUPPLIED TITLE OF TAPE(S): Dreams of freedom : Dickie Michelson RECORDED: New Westminster (B.C.), 1982-02-26 SUMMARY: Dickie Michelson: trolling; Alert Bay-Sointula had honest competition; risk involved in fishing; logging; community spirit; Sunday school; athletics club; characters; logging kept Sointula going when fishing was bad; dad was also a good logger; farming; cows. (End of interview)

Edel Hammer interview

SUPPLIED TITLE OF TAPE(S): Edel Hammer : Bella Coola colony at Hagensborg, 1895-1896 PERIOD COVERED: 1895-1896 RECORDED: [location unknown], 1966-08-18 SUMMARY: TRACK 1: Edel Hammer (nee Nordschow) describes her father and the arrival of her family in Bella Coola in 1895 including a description of the journey. She describes life in the colony, Rev. Christian Saugstad's death, Ole Saugtad stories, leadership after his death, relations with Indians, education and teachers, and cabin building. [TRACK 2: blank.]

Ellen Mellstrom interview

CALL NUMBER: T4031:0001 SUPPLIED TITLE OF TAPE(S): Dreams of freedom : Ellen Mellstrom RECORDED: Saltspring Island (B.C.), 1982-02-05 SUMMARY: Ellen Mellstrom discusses her personal background and growing up at Cape Scott: born at Cape Scott; Danish mother, father born in Wisconsin; schooling by correspondence; interested in farming and gardening as a child/youth; grew most of what they ate; berry picking; wild geese for Christmas; dressed up every Sunday; father repaired shoes; picnics in summer to neighbouring beaches; musical ability of father and brothers; many books in household. CALL NUMBER: T4031:0002 SUPPLIED TITLE OF TAPE(S): Dreams of freedom : Ellen Mellstrom RECORDED: Saltspring Island (B.C.), 1982-02-05 SUMMARY: Ellen Mellstrom discusses early life at Cape Scott: learning to row; visiting friends in the area; promised road never built; shipped what they produced out to Port Alice by boat; fall fair; church not that important; spoke Danish all the time at home; father was at Cape Scott for 40 years- called King of Cape Scott by many; mother was gentle, a real lady. CALL NUMBER: T4031:0003 SUPPLIED TITLE OF TAPE(S): Dreams of freedom : Ellen Mellstrom RECORDED: Saltspring Island (B.C.), 1982-02-05 SUMMARY: Ellen Mellstrom discusses: her unhappiness at moving away from Cape Scott; ambiguous relationship with sea; beachcombing; hunting cougars and deer; moved down to Nanoose Bay; grandfather was one of first people in the lagoon; remembers her childhood fondly; dances 20 miles from Cape Scott when she was young. (End of interview)

Frank and Lilly Broughton interview

CALL NUMBER: T1279:0001 SUPPLIED TITLE OF TAPE(S): Frank Broughton : law and order in the Bella Coola Valley PERIOD COVERED: 1907-1913 RECORDED: [location unknown], 1966-08-23 SUMMARY: TRACK 1: Frank Broughton begins with a detailed story about a murder case from when he worked as a Police officer in Clinton including details about the chase and prosecution of Paul Spinklum who killed Alec Kindness and the Chinese cook who was a witness. Then he discusses his arrival in BC in 1907, how he joined the Police force in 1911, his impressions of Bella Coola including, anecdotes such a;s experiences with a bear and with a missionary named Gibson, the arrest of George Wilson and Stikine Joe for murder in 1913, and he begins to discuss the legendary Indian man named Capoose. TRACK 2: Frank Broughton continues with more on Capoose, an account of a thief who stole 200 dollars, more details about how he joined the Police in 1911, the jail is described, the arrest of opium smokers, t;he fur trade, more on Capoose and Indian Chiefs.

CALL NUMBER: T1279:0002 SUPPLIED TITLE OF TAPE(S): Frank and Lilly Joshephine Broughton recall life in Bella Coola PERIOD COVERED: 1902-1921 RECORDED: [location unknown], 1966-08-23 SUMMARY: TRACK 1: Lilly Josephine Broughton describes her family and her father Esten Gordon, her grandfather Jacob Nygaard, her impressions of Bella Coola, her impressions of Ralph Edwards, meeting her future; husband Frank Broughton, Capoose, Squinas, and John Clayton's Hudson's Bay store. Then Frank Broughton adds comments about the HBC store, the Clayton family, a story of Humpback Johnny and his gold, ;a story of Charlie Tucker and his ruined suit, and Indian drinking.

Gaston Bazille interview

CALL NUMBER: T1282:0001 SUPPLIED TITLE OF TAPE(S): Gaston Bazille : entrepreneur PERIOD COVERED: 1936-1969 RECORDED: [location unknown], 1969 SUMMARY: TRACK 1: Gaston "Buzz" Bazille begins his discussion with his arrival in Ocean Falls, B.C. in 1946 before moving to Bella Coola in 1947. He discusses his family and work life including a story about a; time when he quit his job and swam the river because he wouldn't wait for a boat. Then he offers anecdotes and details about his involvement with the B.C. Power Commission and electricity in Bella Coola in 1951. Then he describes an experience with a cougar, and his experiences with the building of the Bella Coola Road from 1951-1953. TRACK 2: Buzz Bazille continues by discussing the soda pop factory, the pulp mill and industrial pollution threat to the Bella Coola Valley, his attempts to bring industry to the valley, logging, his newspaper "Valley Echo", Bella Coola and Hagensborg.

CALL NUMBER: T1282:0002 SUPPLIED TITLE OF TAPE(S): Gaston Bazille : comments on Norwegians and Indians PERIOD COVERED: 1936-1969 RECORDED: [location unknown], 1969 SUMMARY: TRACK 1: Buzz Bazille comments on Norwegian settlers and Indian affairs in the valley.;

Gerald Thulin interview

RECORDED: [location unknown], 1965-06-19 SUMMARY: TRACK 1: Mr. Gerald Thulin discusses the arrival of his father, Fred Thulin, and his uncle, Charles Thulin, in 1889 from Sweden to Canada. He then discusses the founding of Lund in 1889; the first hotel and liquor licenses there in 1894; and the first post office in 1892. Mr. Thulin then discusses the founding of Campbell River in 1904 and the building of the hotel wharf. He then returns to his discussion of Lund as a centre for loggers and tourists and he discusses boating. [TRACK 2: blank.]

Harold Engebretson interview

RECORDED: Anahim Lake (B.C.), [1970?] SUMMARY: TRACK 1: Mr. Harold Engebretson remembers his father and life in the Anahim Lake area. His father, Tom Engebretson, came to Anahim Lake in 1899. Trails between Bella Coola and Towdystan. Harold was born in Bella Coola in 1912; childhood recollections of Bella Coola; he came to Anahim Lake to take over his father's ranch in the 1930s; anecdotes. Then an unidentified voice discusses Rich Hobson and his book "Grass Beyond the Mountains". TRACK 2: The discussion of Rich Hobson continues, including anecdotes about Hobson and his friend Pan Phillips. Then Harold returns to relate an anecdote (as told by his father) about bachelors in the Atnarko Valley.

Interview with Bertha Nygaard, Ruth Gurr and Betty Pelton

CALL NUMBER: T4031:0034 SUPPLIED TITLE OF TAPE(S): Dreams of freedom : Bertha Nygaard RECORDED: White Rock (B.C.), 1982-03-17 SUMMARY: Bertha Nygaard discusses: arriving at Bella Coola in 1895 with her parents, after a minister in Minnesota persuaded her father to settle there; father ended up farming, even though his previous experience was as a tailor; first memories of Bella Coola- seeing Natives on the river; living with Mrs. Hansen when her mother was sick; in summer, her father was 'net boss'; father also built a number of houses in Bella Colla; father died at age 55, due to difficult manual labour; character in the community, old Torger; bear story; not many chores; Mr. Jacobsen; Mrs. Nygaard's husband- very musical, played the flute; dances once a week in the winter; she has always been an avid reader; Mr. Jacobsen's library; speaking English at home, learning Norwegian from neighbours; anecdote about cable car; Lysdahl sewing circle; horse races.(Occasional comments by Ruth Gurr and Betty Pelton) CALL NUMBER: T4031:0035 SUPPLIED TITLE OF TAPE(S): Dreams of freedom : Ruth Gurr RECORDED: White Rock (B.C.), 1982-03-17 SUMMARY: Ruth Gurr discusses her childhood and youth in Bella Coola: describes first house she lived in; picking apples in lower field; two kinds of cherry trees; helping brother build rowboat and using it all summer; mornings spent doing chores or going to school; had a large farm; old swimming hole; picked blackberries so parents could sell them; mother baked a large amount of bread every day to feed big family and many workers on farm; skating on pond in winter; trudging up to school in the winter in big snowdrifts; school always cold; joining Girls' Aid as a teenager- learned how to knit, embroider; sewing circle; main centre in early years was the church; Sunday school once a week. (Occasional comments by Bertha Nygaard and Betty Pelton) CALL NUMBER: T4031:0036 SUPPLIED TITLE OF TAPE(S): Dreams of freedom : Ruth Gurr RECORDED: White Rock (B.C.), 1982-03-17 SUMMARY: Ruth Gurr discusses: musical family- dad played baritone and cornet, mother played cornet and flute; first radio was very well-loved; dad farmed and did road building work; he was foreman when the Conservatives were in office, but not when Liberals were in power; C.C. Shepsted, the storekeeper; valley was a good place to grow fruit; apple trees were numerous; mother made jellies and pies out of fruit; more on chores; haying in the summer; anecdote about a flood; staying at Grandma Nygaard's and being homesick. (Occasional comments by Bertha Nygaard and Betty Pelton) CALL NUMBER: T4031:0037 SUPPLIED TITLE OF TAPE(S): Dreams of freedom : Ruth Gurr RECORDED: White Rock (B.C.), 1982-03-17 SUMMARY: Ruth Gurr discusses: swimming in a slough when the water gathered after a flood; had to go through bear country to get to island where they swam; going to Bible vacation school in the summer; highlight of winter was the Christmas play (end of interview). (Occasional comments by Bertha Nygaard and Betty Pelton)

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